sperna III “kick”

“tread, trample”

intransitive/transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek spern 1pl vér spernum 1sg ek sperna 1pl vér spernim
2sg þú spern 2pl þér spernið 2sg þú spernir 2pl þér spernið
3sg hon spern 3pl þau sperna 3sg hon sperni 3pl þau sperni
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sparn 1pl vér spurnum 1sg ek spyrna 1pl vér spyrnim
2sg þú sparnt 2pl þér spurnuð 2sg þú spyrnir 2pl þér spyrnið
3sg hon sparn 3pl þau spurnu 3sg hon spyrni 3pl þau spyrni
preterite infinitive spurnu
past participle f. spornin m. sporninn n. spornit
imperative 2sg spern 1pl spernum 2pl spernið
middle voice: spernask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek spernumk 1pl vér spernumk 1sg ek spernumk 1pl vér spernimk
2sg þú spernsk 2pl þér spernizk 2sg þú spernisk 2pl þér spernizk
3sg hon spernsk 3pl þau spernask 3sg hon spernisk 3pl þau spernisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek spurnumk 1pl vér spurnumk 1sg ek spyrnumk 1pl vér spyrnimk
2sg þú sparnzk 2pl þér spurnuzk 2sg þú spyrnisk 2pl þér spyrnizk
3sg hon sparnsk 3pl þau spurnusk 3sg hon spyrnisk 3pl þau spyrnisk
past participle n. spornizk
imperative 2sg spernsk 1pl spernumk 2pl spernizk

PG *spurnaną, OE spornan III, weak ME spurnen, MnE spurn, Dutch aansporen “spur on,” German spornen “spur,” Latin spernere “spurn, reject.” Lexical variants sporna, spenna; the present subjunctive, plural indicative, and imperative forms of the latter variant coincides with those of spenna 1 “clasp.” Only the preterite singular is attested; otherwise exclusively found as class 1 weak (sperndi, sperndr). The reconstructed 2/3sg form spern would have had the unassimilated variant spernr. The present subjunctive, imperative, and plural indicative systems of the strong and weak verbs coincide.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

© P. S. Langeslag 2011, 2020