Class VII Strong Verbs

auða VII “grant”

“be fated”

transitive (?acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek eyð 1pl vér auðum 1sg ek auða 1pl vér auðim
2sg þú eyðr 2pl þér auðið 2sg þú auðir 2pl þér auðið
3sg hon eyðr 3pl þau auða 3sg hon auði 3pl þau auði
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek jóð 1pl vér jóðum 1sg ek œða 1pl vér œðim
2sg þú jótt 2pl þér jóðuð 2sg þú œðir 2pl þér œðið
3sg hon jóð 3pl þau jóðu 3sg hon œði 3pl þau œði
preterite infinitive jóðu
past participle f. auðin m. auðinn n. auðit
imperative 2sg auð 1pl auðum 2pl auðið
middle voice: auðask (not attested)
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek auðumk 1pl vér auðumk 1sg ek auðumk 1pl vér auðimk
2sg þú eyzk 2pl þér auðizk 2sg þú auðisk 2pl þér auðizk
3sg hon eyzk 3pl þau auðask 3sg hon auðisk 3pl þau auðisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek jóðumk 1pl vér jóðumk 1sg ek œðumk 1pl vér œðimk
2sg þú józk 2pl þér jóðuzk 2sg þú œðisk 2pl þér œðizk
3sg hon józk 3pl þau jóðusk 3sg hon œðisk 3pl þau œðisk
past participle n. auðizk
imperative 2sg auzk 1pl auðumk 2pl auðizk

PG audan. Cognate with OE *ēadan VII; only the participles OE eaden, ON auðit are attested.

regressive assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

auka VII “increase, exaggerate”

“exceed”

transitive (acc/dat)/impersonal intransitive (dat of degree)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek eyk 1pl vér aukum 1sg ek auka 1pl vér aukim
2sg þú eykr 2pl þér aukið 2sg þú aukir 2pl þér aukið
3sg hon eykr 3pl þau auka 3sg hon auki 3pl þau auki
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek jók 1pl vér jókum 1sg ek œka 1pl vér œkim
2sg þú jókt 2pl þér jókuð 2sg þú œkir 2pl þér œkið
3sg hon jók 3pl þau jóku 3sg hon œki 3pl þau œki
preterite infinitive jóku
past participle f. aukin m. aukinn n. aukit
imperative 2sg auk 1pl aukum 2pl aukið
middle voice: aukask “procreate”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek aukumk 1pl vér aukumk 1sg ek aukumk 1pl vér aukimk
2sg þú eyksk 2pl þér aukizk 2sg þú aukisk 2pl þér aukizk
3sg hon eyksk 3pl þau aukask 3sg hon aukisk 3pl þau aukisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek jókumk 1pl vér jókumk 1sg ek œkumk 1pl vér œkimk
2sg þú jókzk 2pl þér jókuzk 2sg þú œkisk 2pl þér œkizk
3sg hon jóksk 3pl þau jókusk 3sg hon œkisk 3pl þau œkisk
past participle n. aukizk
imperative 2sg auksk 1pl aukumk 2pl aukizk

PG aukan. Related to vaxa VI, q.v. for cognates, and more immediately cognate with weak OE ēacian 2, ēacnian 2, ME ēken, Latin augēre, auxilium “aid”.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

ausa VII “sprinkle, pour”

“draw water; hurl (abuse); kick”

transitive (acc/dat: varies by construction, sense)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek eys 1pl vér ausum 1sg ek ausa 1pl vér ausim
2sg þú eyss 2pl þér ausið 2sg þú ausir 2pl þér ausið
3sg hon eyss 3pl þau ausa 3sg hon ausi 3pl þau ausi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek jós 1pl vér jósum 1sg ek œsa 1pl vér œsim
2sg þú jóst 2pl þér jósuð 2sg þú œsir 2pl þér œsið
3sg hon jós 3pl þau jósu 3sg hon œsi 3pl þau œsi
preterite infinitive jósu
past participle f. ausin m. ausinn n. ausit
imperative 2sg aus 1pl ausum 2pl ausið
middle voice: ausask “hurl (abuse)”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek ausumk 1pl vér ausumk 1sg ek ausumk 1pl vér ausimk
2sg þú eysk 2pl þér ausizk 2sg þú ausisk 2pl þér ausizk
3sg hon eysk 3pl þau ausask 3sg hon ausisk 3pl þau ausisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek jósumk 1pl vér jósumk 1sg ek œsumk 1pl vér œsimk
2sg þú jószk 2pl þér jósuzk 2sg þú œsisk 2pl þér œsizk
3sg hon jóssk 3pl þau jósusk 3sg hon œsisk 3pl þau œsisk
past participle n. ausizk
imperative 2sg aussk 1pl ausumk 2pl ausizk

PG ausan. Cognate with Dutch hozen, Latin haurīre “draw water”.

progressive assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

bauta VII “beat”

“chase”

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek beyt 1pl vér bautum 1sg ek bauta 1pl vér bautim
2sg þú beytr 2pl þér bautið 2sg þú bautir 2pl þér bautið
3sg hon beytr 3pl þau bauta 3sg hon bauti 3pl þau bauti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek bjót 1pl vér bjótum 1sg ek bœta 1pl vér bœtim
2sg þú bjótt 2pl þér bjótuð 2sg þú bœtir 2pl þér bœtið
3sg hon bjót 3pl þau bjótu 3sg hon bœti 3pl þau bœti
preterite infinitive bjótu
past participle f. bautin m. bautinn n. bautit
imperative 2sg baut 1pl bautum 2pl bautið
middle voice: bautask (not attested)
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek bautumk 1pl vér bautumk 1sg ek bautumk 1pl vér bautimk
2sg þú beyzk 2pl þér bautizk 2sg þú bautisk 2pl þér bautizk
3sg hon beyzk 3pl þau bautask 3sg hon bautisk 3pl þau bautisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek bjótumk 1pl vér bjótumk 1sg ek bœtumk 1pl vér bœtimk
2sg þú bjózk 2pl þér bjótuzk 2sg þú bœtisk 2pl þér bœtizk
3sg hon bjózk 3pl þau bjótusk 3sg hon bœtisk 3pl þau bœtisk
past participle n. bautizk
imperative 2sg bauzk 1pl bautumk 2pl bautizk

PG bautan. Cognate with OE bēatan VII, ME bēten, MnE beat, Latin fustis “cudgel”, cf. Dutch botsen “collide”; only the present indicative plural and past participle are attested. The second-person preterite singular form coincides with that of búa VII.

consonant clusters

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

blanda VII “mix”

“dilute; brew (mead)”

transitive (acc of first substance/dat of second substance)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek blend 1pl vér blǫndum 1sg ek blanda 1pl vér blandim
2sg þú blendr 2pl þér blandið 2sg þú blandir 2pl þér blandið
3sg hon blendr 3pl þau blanda 3sg hon blandi 3pl þau blandi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek blett 1pl vér blendum 1sg ek blenda 1pl vér blendim
2sg þú blezt 2pl þér blenduð 2sg þú blendir 2pl þér blendið
3sg hon blett 3pl þau blendu 3sg hon blendi 3pl þau blendi
preterite infinitive blendu
past participle f. blandin m. blandinn n. blandit
imperative 2sg bland 1pl blǫndum 2pl blandið
middle voice: blandask “become involved”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek blǫndumk 1pl vér blǫndumk 1sg ek blǫndumk 1pl vér blandimk
2sg þú blenzk 2pl þér blandizk 2sg þú blandisk 2pl þér blandizk
3sg hon blenzk 3pl þau blandask 3sg hon blandisk 3pl þau blandisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek blendumk 1pl vér blendumk 1sg ek blendumk 1pl vér blendimk
2sg þú blezk 2pl þér blenduzk 2sg þú blendisk 2pl þér blendizk
3sg hon blezk 3pl þau blendusk 3sg hon blendisk 3pl þau blendisk
past participle n. blandizk
imperative 2sg blanzk 1pl blǫndumk 2pl blandizk

PG blandan. Cognate with OE blandan VII and the apparent source of ME blē̆nden, MnE blend. Preterite variant blétt, whose reflexive form blézk is homonymous with the reconstructed equivalent in blása. Became class 2 weak about the thirteenth century.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

blása VII “blow”

“flutter; breathe, pant; inspire; inflate; blow a wind instrument; proclaim; smelt”

transitive (acc/dat of means)/intransitive/impersonal transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek blæs 1pl vér blásum 1sg ek blása 1pl vér blásim
2sg þú blæss 2pl þér blásið 2sg þú blásir 2pl þér blásið
3sg hon blæss 3pl þau blása 3sg hon blási 3pl þau blási
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek blés 1pl vér blésum 1sg ek blésa 1pl vér blésim
2sg þú blést 2pl þér blésuð 2sg þú blésir 2pl þér blésið
3sg hon blés 3pl þau blésu 3sg hon blési 3pl þau blési
preterite infinitive blésu
past participle f. blásin m. blásinn n. blásit
imperative 2sg blás 1pl blásum 2pl blásið
middle voice: blásask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek blásumk 1pl vér blásumk 1sg ek blásumk 1pl vér blásimk
2sg þú blæsk 2pl þér blásizk 2sg þú blásisk 2pl þér blásizk
3sg hon blæsk 3pl þau blásask 3sg hon blásisk 3pl þau blásisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek blésumk 1pl vér blésumk 1sg ek blésumk 1pl vér blésimk
2sg þú blészk 2pl þér blésuzk 2sg þú blésisk 2pl þér blésizk
3sg hon blésk 3pl þau blésusk 3sg hon blésisk 3pl þau blésisk
past participle n. blásizk
imperative 2sg blássk 1pl blásumk 2pl blásizk

PG blēsan. Cognate with the OE nouns blǣs “gust”, blǣst “blaze; gust”, ME, MnE blast. Reconstructed reflexive form blézk homonymous with the equivalent in blanda.

progressive assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

blóta VII “sacrifice”

“worship; curse, damn; bewitch”

transitive (dat/acc: varies by sense)/intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek blœt 1pl vér blótum 1sg ek blóta 1pl vér blótim
2sg þú blœtr 2pl þér blótið 2sg þú blótir 2pl þér blótið
3sg hon blœtr 3pl þau blóta 3sg hon blóti 3pl þau blóti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek blét 1pl vér blétum 1sg ek bléta 1pl vér blétim
2sg þú blézt 2pl þér blétuð 2sg þú blétir 2pl þér blétið
3sg hon blét 3pl þau blétu 3sg hon bléti 3pl þau bléti
preterite infinitive blétu
past participle f. blótin m. blótinn n. blótit
imperative 2sg blót 1pl blótum 2pl blótið
middle voice: blótask “curse”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek blótumk 1pl vér blótumk 1sg ek blótumk 1pl vér blótimk
2sg þú blœzk 2pl þér blótizk 2sg þú blótisk 2pl þér blótizk
3sg hon blœzk 3pl þau blótask 3sg hon blótisk 3pl þau blótisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek blétumk 1pl vér blétumk 1sg ek blétumk 1pl vér blétimk
2sg þú blézk 2pl þér blétuzk 2sg þú blétisk 2pl þér blétizk
3sg hon blézk 3pl þau blétusk 3sg hon blétisk 3pl þau blétisk
past participle n. blótizk
imperative 2sg blózk 1pl blótumk 2pl blótizk

PG blōtan. Cognate with OE blōtan VII and weak.

consonant clusters

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

búa VII “dwell”

“prepare; decorate; settle; govern; behave; stay, be”

intransitive/transitive (dat/acc: varies by sense)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek 1pl vér búum 1sg ek búa 1pl vér búim
2sg þú býr 2pl þér búið 2sg þú búir 2pl þér búið
3sg hon býr 3pl þau búa 3sg hon búi 3pl þau búi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek bjó 1pl vér bjoggum 1sg ek bøgga 1pl vér bøggim
2sg þú bjótt 2pl þér bjogguð 2sg þú bøggir 2pl þér bøggið
3sg hon bjó 3pl þau bjoggu 3sg hon bøggi 3pl þau bøggi
preterite infinitive bjoggu
past participle f. búin m. búinn n. búit
imperative 2sg 1pl búum 2pl búið
middle voice: búask “prepare oneself”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek búumk 1pl vér búumk 1sg ek búumk 1pl vér búimk
2sg þú býsk 2pl þér búizk 2sg þú búisk 2pl þér búizk
3sg hon býsk 3pl þau búask 3sg hon búisk 3pl þau búisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek bjoggumk 1pl vér bjoggumk 1sg ek bøggumk 1pl vér bøggimk
2sg þú bjózk 2pl þér bjogguzk 2sg þú bøggisk 2pl þér bøggizk
3sg hon bjósk 3pl þau bjoggusk 3sg hon bøggisk 3pl þau bøggisk
past participle n. búizk
imperative 2sg búsk 1pl búumk 2pl búizk

PG bōwwan. Cognate with OE būan VII and 3, 2 weak and the source of ME busken “prepare oneself”; further cognates include Dutch bouwen “build”, Latin fuī “have been”.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

falda VII “cover one’s head”

transitive (dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek feld 1pl vér fǫldum 1sg ek falda 1pl vér faldim
2sg þú feldr 2pl þér faldið 2sg þú faldir 2pl þér faldið
3sg hon feldr 3pl þau falda 3sg hon faldi 3pl þau faldi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek felt 1pl vér feldum 1sg ek felda 1pl vér feldim
2sg þú felzt 2pl þér felduð 2sg þú feldir 2pl þér feldið
3sg hon felt 3pl þau feldu 3sg hon feldi 3pl þau feldi
preterite infinitive feldu
past participle f. faldin m. faldinn n. faldit
imperative 2sg fald 1pl fǫldum 2pl faldið
middle voice: faldask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek fǫldumk 1pl vér fǫldumk 1sg ek fǫldumk 1pl vér faldimk
2sg þú felzk 2pl þér faldizk 2sg þú faldisk 2pl þér faldizk
3sg hon felzk 3pl þau faldask 3sg hon faldisk 3pl þau faldisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek feldumk 1pl vér feldumk 1sg ek feldumk 1pl vér feldimk
2sg þú felzk 2pl þér felduzk 2sg þú feldisk 2pl þér feldizk
3sg hon felzk 3pl þau feldusk 3sg hon feldisk 3pl þau feldisk
past participle n. faldizk
imperative 2sg falzk 1pl fǫldumk 2pl faldizk

PG falþan. Cognate with OE fealdan VII, ME fōlden, MnE fold, Dutch vouwen, German falten. Preterite variant félt.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

falla VII “fall”

“die; flow; fail; affect; suit, be appropriate”

intransitive/transitive (dat)/impersonal transitive (dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek fell 1pl vér fǫllum 1sg ek falla 1pl vér fallim
2sg þú fellr 2pl þér fallið 2sg þú fallir 2pl þér fallið
3sg hon fellr 3pl þau falla 3sg hon falli 3pl þau falli
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek fell 1pl vér fellum 1sg ek fella 1pl vér fellim
2sg þú fellt 2pl þér felluð 2sg þú fellir 2pl þér fellið
3sg hon fell 3pl þau fellu 3sg hon felli 3pl þau felli
preterite infinitive fellu
past participle f. fallin m. fallinn n. fallit
imperative 2sg fall 1pl fǫllum 2pl fallið
middle voice: fallask “fall; fail; please”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek fǫllumk 1pl vér fǫllumk 1sg ek fǫllumk 1pl vér fallimk
2sg þú fellsk 2pl þér fallizk 2sg þú fallisk 2pl þér fallizk
3sg hon fellsk 3pl þau fallask 3sg hon fallisk 3pl þau fallisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek fellumk 1pl vér fellumk 1sg ek fellumk 1pl vér fellimk
2sg þú fellzk 2pl þér felluzk 2sg þú fellisk 2pl þér fellizk
3sg hon fellsk 3pl þau fellusk 3sg hon fellisk 3pl þau fellisk
past participle n. fallizk
imperative 2sg fallsk 1pl fǫllumk 2pl fallizk

PG fallan. Cognate with OE feallan VII, ME fallen, MnE fall, Dutch vallen, German fallen; further Latin abolēre “destroy”. Inflected variants include preterite singular féll. Without that long vowel, the first person present and preterite coincide, and there is at least a theoretical possibility of the second and third person present coinciding with the third person preterite singular by assimilation.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

VII “take, seize, catch”

“get, receive; accomplish”

transitive (acc [gen] of object/dat of beneficiary)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek 1pl vér fám 1sg ek 1pl vér fáim
2sg þú fær 2pl þér fáið 2sg þú fáir 2pl þér fáið
3sg hon fær 3pl þau 3sg hon fái 3pl þau fái
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek fekk 1pl vér fengum 1sg ek fenga 1pl vér fengim
2sg þú fekkt 2pl þér fenguð 2sg þú fengir 2pl þér fengið
3sg hon fekk 3pl þau fengu 3sg hon fengi 3pl þau fengi
preterite infinitive fengu
past participle f. fengin m. fenginn n. fengit
imperative 2sg 1pl fám 2pl fáið
middle voice: fásk “be found, exist, occur”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek fámk 1pl vér fámk 1sg ek fámk 1pl vér fáimk
2sg þú fæsk 2pl þér fáizk 2sg þú fáisk 2pl þér fáizk
3sg hon fæsk 3pl þau fásk 3sg hon fáisk 3pl þau fáisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek fengumk 1pl vér fengumk 1sg ek fengumk 1pl vér fengimk
2sg þú fekkzk 2pl þér fenguzk 2sg þú fengisk 2pl þér fengizk
3sg hon fekksk 3pl þau fengusk 3sg hon fengisk 3pl þau fengisk
past participle n. fengizk
imperative 2sg fásk 1pl fámk 2pl fáizk

PG fanhan. Cognate with OE fōn VII, Dutch vangen, German fangen, Latin pangere “fasten”; preterite indicative singular variants fékk, fekt.

contraction  ·  vowel lengthening  ·  regressive assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

ganga VII “go, walk”

“continue; graze; end, die; succeed; diminish”

intransitive/impersonal transitive (dat/acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek geng 1pl vér gǫngum 1sg ek ganga 1pl vér gangim
2sg þú gengr 2pl þér gangið 2sg þú gangir 2pl þér gangið
3sg hon gengr 3pl þau ganga 3sg hon gangi 3pl þau gangi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gekk 1pl vér gengum 1sg ek genga 1pl vér gengim
2sg þú gekkt 2pl þér genguð 2sg þú gengir 2pl þér gengið
3sg hon gekk 3pl þau gengu 3sg hon gengi 3pl þau gengi
preterite infinitive gengu
past participle f. gengin m. genginn n. gengit
imperative 2sg gakk 1pl gǫngum 2pl gangið
middle voice: gangask “succeed; fare; be ruined; change”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gǫngumk 1pl vér gǫngumk 1sg ek gǫngumk 1pl vér gangimk
2sg þú gengsk 2pl þér gangizk 2sg þú gangisk 2pl þér gangizk
3sg hon gengsk 3pl þau gangask 3sg hon gangisk 3pl þau gangisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gengumk 1pl vér gengumk 1sg ek gengumk 1pl vér gengimk
2sg þú gekkzk 2pl þér genguzk 2sg þú gengisk 2pl þér gengizk
3sg hon gekksk 3pl þau gengusk 3sg hon gengisk 3pl þau gengisk
past participle n. gengizk
imperative 2sg gangsk 1pl gǫngumk 2pl gangizk

PG gangan. Cognate with OE gangan VII, ME gā̆ngen.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

gnúa VII “rub”

transitive (acc/dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gný 1pl vér gnúum 1sg ek gnúa 1pl vér gnúim
2sg þú gnýr 2pl þér gnúið 2sg þú gnúir 2pl þér gnúið
3sg hon gnýr 3pl þau gnúa 3sg hon gnúi 3pl þau gnúi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gnera 1pl vér gnerum 1sg ek gnera 1pl vér gnerim
2sg þú gnerit 2pl þér gneruð 2sg þú gnerir 2pl þér gnerið
3sg hon gneri 3pl þau gneru 3sg hon gneri 3pl þau gneri
preterite infinitive gneru
past participle f. gnúin m. gnúinn n. gnúit
imperative 2sg gnú 1pl gnúum 2pl gnúið
middle voice: gnúask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gnúumk 1pl vér gnúumk 1sg ek gnúumk 1pl vér gnúimk
2sg þú gnýsk 2pl þér gnúizk 2sg þú gnúisk 2pl þér gnúizk
3sg hon gnýsk 3pl þau gnúask 3sg hon gnúisk 3pl þau gnúisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gnerumk 1pl vér gnerumk 1sg ek gnerumk 1pl vér gnerimk
2sg þú gnerizk 2pl þér gneruzk 2sg þú gnerisk 2pl þér gnerizk
3sg hon gnerisk 3pl þau gnerusk 3sg hon gnerisk 3pl þau gnerisk
past participle n. gnúizk
imperative 2sg gnúsk 1pl gnúumk 2pl gnúizk

reduplication

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

gráta VII “weep”

“mourn”

intransitive/transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek græt 1pl vér grátum 1sg ek gráta 1pl vér grátim
2sg þú grætr 2pl þér grátið 2sg þú grátir 2pl þér grátið
3sg hon grætr 3pl þau gráta 3sg hon gráti 3pl þau gráti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek grét 1pl vér grétum 1sg ek gréta 1pl vér grétim
2sg þú grézt 2pl þér grétuð 2sg þú grétir 2pl þér grétið
3sg hon grét 3pl þau grétu 3sg hon gréti 3pl þau gréti
preterite infinitive grétu
past participle f. grátin m. grátinn n. grátit
imperative 2sg grát 1pl grátum 2pl grátið
middle voice: grátask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek grátumk 1pl vér grátumk 1sg ek grátumk 1pl vér grátimk
2sg þú græzk 2pl þér grátizk 2sg þú grátisk 2pl þér grátizk
3sg hon græzk 3pl þau grátask 3sg hon grátisk 3pl þau grátisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek grétumk 1pl vér grétumk 1sg ek grétumk 1pl vér grétimk
2sg þú grézk 2pl þér grétuzk 2sg þú grétisk 2pl þér grétizk
3sg hon grézk 3pl þau grétusk 3sg hon grétisk 3pl þau grétisk
past participle n. grátizk
imperative 2sg grázk 1pl grátumk 2pl grátizk

PG grētan. Cognate with OE grētan, ME grẹ̄ten; cf. OE grēotan II.

consonant clusters

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

gróa VII “grow”

“recover, heal; increase”

intransitive/impersonal intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek grœ 1pl vér gróm 1sg ek gróa 1pl vér gróim
2sg þú grœr 2pl þér gróið 2sg þú gróir 2pl þér gróið
3sg hon grœr 3pl þau gróa 3sg hon grói 3pl þau grói
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek grera 1pl vér grerum 1sg ek grera 1pl vér grerim
2sg þú grerit 2pl þér greruð 2sg þú grerir 2pl þér grerið
3sg hon greri 3pl þau greru 3sg hon greri 3pl þau greri
preterite infinitive greru
past participle f. gróin m. gróinn n. gróit
imperative 2sg gró 1pl gróm 2pl gróið
middle voice: gróask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek grómk 1pl vér grómk 1sg ek grómk 1pl vér gróimk
2sg þú grœsk 2pl þér gróizk 2sg þú gróisk 2pl þér gróizk
3sg hon grœsk 3pl þau gróask 3sg hon gróisk 3pl þau gróisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek grerumk 1pl vér grerumk 1sg ek grerumk 1pl vér grerimk
2sg þú grerizk 2pl þér greruzk 2sg þú grerisk 2pl þér grerizk
3sg hon grerisk 3pl þau grerusk 3sg hon grerisk 3pl þau grerisk
past participle n. gróizk
imperative 2sg grósk 1pl grómk 2pl gróizk

PG grōan. Cognate with OE grōwan VII, ME grouen, MnE grow, Dutch groeien, further Latin grāmen “grass”. Preterite variant grøra, grørum.

reduplication

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

halda VII “hold, keep”

“hold prisoner; stop, hinder; withhold; steer; head for”

transitive (dat/acc: varies by sense)/impersonal transitive (dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek held 1pl vér hǫldum 1sg ek halda 1pl vér haldim
2sg þú heldr 2pl þér haldið 2sg þú haldir 2pl þér haldið
3sg hon heldr 3pl þau halda 3sg hon haldi 3pl þau haldi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek helt 1pl vér heldum 1sg ek helda 1pl vér heldim
2sg þú helzt 2pl þér helduð 2sg þú heldir 2pl þér heldið
3sg hon helt 3pl þau heldu 3sg hon heldi 3pl þau heldi
preterite infinitive heldu
past participle f. haldin m. haldinn n. haldit
imperative 2sg hald 1pl hǫldum 2pl haldið
middle voice: haldask “stay; last, continue”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hǫldumk 1pl vér hǫldumk 1sg ek hǫldumk 1pl vér haldimk
2sg þú helzk 2pl þér haldizk 2sg þú haldisk 2pl þér haldizk
3sg hon helzk 3pl þau haldask 3sg hon haldisk 3pl þau haldisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek heldumk 1pl vér heldumk 1sg ek heldumk 1pl vér heldimk
2sg þú helzk 2pl þér helduzk 2sg þú heldisk 2pl þér heldizk
3sg hon helzk 3pl þau heldusk 3sg hon heldisk 3pl þau heldisk
past participle n. haldizk
imperative 2sg halzk 1pl hǫldumk 2pl haldizk

PG haldan. Cognate with OE healdan VII, ME hōlden, MnE hold, Dutch houden, German halten; preterite variant hélt.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

hanga VII “hang”

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hangi 1pl vér hǫngum 1sg ek hanga 1pl vér hangim
2sg þú hangir 2pl þér hangið 2sg þú hangir 2pl þér hangið
3sg hon hangir 3pl þau hanga 3sg hon hangi 3pl þau hangi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hekk 1pl vér hengum 1sg ek henga 1pl vér hengim
2sg þú hekkt 2pl þér henguð 2sg þú hengir 2pl þér hengið
3sg hon hekk 3pl þau hengu 3sg hon hengi 3pl þau hengi
preterite infinitive hengu
past participle f. hangin m. hanginn n. hangit
imperative 2sg hang 1pl hǫngum 2pl hangið
middle voice: hangask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hǫngumk 1pl vér hǫngumk 1sg ek hǫngumk 1pl vér hangimk
2sg þú hangisk 2pl þér hangizk 2sg þú hangisk 2pl þér hangizk
3sg hon hangisk 3pl þau hangask 3sg hon hangisk 3pl þau hangisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hengumk 1pl vér hengumk 1sg ek hengumk 1pl vér hengimk
2sg þú hekkzk 2pl þér henguzk 2sg þú hengisk 2pl þér hengizk
3sg hon hekksk 3pl þau hengusk 3sg hon hengisk 3pl þau hengisk
past participle n. hangizk
imperative 2sg hangsk 1pl hǫngumk 2pl hangizk

PG hanhan. Cognate with OE hōn VII and weak hangian 2, both of which combined with the ON causative hengja 1 to become ME hō̆ngen, MnE hang; further cognates include Dutch hangen, German hängen (following confusion with the causative, Latin cūnctārī “hesitate”). The present indicative is class 3 weak, and sometimes so is the preterite indicative. Preterite variant hékk.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

heita VII “call”

“be called; promise”

transitive (acc/dat: varies by sense)/intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek heit 1pl vér heitum 1sg ek heita 1pl vér heitim
2sg þú heitr 2pl þér heitið 2sg þú heitir 2pl þér heitið
3sg hon heitr 3pl þau heita 3sg hon heiti 3pl þau heiti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hét 1pl vér hétum 1sg ek héta 1pl vér hétim
2sg þú hézt 2pl þér hétuð 2sg þú hétir 2pl þér hétið
3sg hon hét 3pl þau hétu 3sg hon héti 3pl þau héti
preterite infinitive hétu
past participle f. heitin m. heitinn n. heitit
imperative 2sg heit 1pl heitum 2pl heitið
middle voice: heitask “be called; be engaged”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek heitumk 1pl vér heitumk 1sg ek heitumk 1pl vér heitimk
2sg þú heizk 2pl þér heitizk 2sg þú heitisk 2pl þér heitizk
3sg hon heizk 3pl þau heitask 3sg hon heitisk 3pl þau heitisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hétumk 1pl vér hétumk 1sg ek hétumk 1pl vér hétimk
2sg þú hézk 2pl þér hétuzk 2sg þú hétisk 2pl þér hétizk
3sg hon hézk 3pl þau hétusk 3sg hon hétisk 3pl þau hétisk
past participle n. heitizk
imperative 2sg heizk 1pl heitumk 2pl heitizk

PG haitan. Cognate with OE hātan VII, ME hōten, eMnE hight, Dutch heten, German heißen. In the sense “be called”, the present indicative conjugates like that of a class 3 or long-stemmed class 1 weak verb: heiti, heitir. The form ek heiti is considered a relic of an ancient Indo-European passive or middle voice.

consonant clusters

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

hlaupa VII “jump”

“run; flee; glide, flow”

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hleyp 1pl vér hlaupum 1sg ek hlaupa 1pl vér hlaupim
2sg þú hleypr 2pl þér hlaupið 2sg þú hlaupir 2pl þér hlaupið
3sg hon hleypr 3pl þau hlaupa 3sg hon hlaupi 3pl þau hlaupi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hljóp 1pl vér hljópum 1sg ek hlœpa 1pl vér hlœpim
2sg þú hljópt 2pl þér hljópuð 2sg þú hlœpir 2pl þér hlœpið
3sg hon hljóp 3pl þau hljópu 3sg hon hlœpi 3pl þau hlœpi
preterite infinitive hljópu
past participle f. hlaupin m. hlaupinn n. hlaupit
imperative 2sg hlaup 1pl hlaupum 2pl hlaupið
middle voice: hlaupask “run away”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hlaupumk 1pl vér hlaupumk 1sg ek hlaupumk 1pl vér hlaupimk
2sg þú hleypsk 2pl þér hlaupizk 2sg þú hlaupisk 2pl þér hlaupizk
3sg hon hleypsk 3pl þau hlaupask 3sg hon hlaupisk 3pl þau hlaupisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hljópumk 1pl vér hljópumk 1sg ek hlœpumk 1pl vér hlœpimk
2sg þú hljópzk 2pl þér hljópuzk 2sg þú hlœpisk 2pl þér hlœpizk
3sg hon hljópsk 3pl þau hljópusk 3sg hon hlœpisk 3pl þau hlœpisk
past participle n. hlaupizk
imperative 2sg hlaupsk 1pl hlaupumk 2pl hlaupizk

PG hlaupan. Cognate with OE hleāpan VII, ME lēpen, MnE leap, Dutch lopen, German laufen; variants include preterite singular hlép, plural hlupum, laupum, subjunctive hlœpi.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

hváta VII “thrust”

transitive (dat of means)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hvæt 1pl vér hvátum 1sg ek hváta 1pl vér hvátim
2sg þú hvætr 2pl þér hvátið 2sg þú hvátir 2pl þér hvátið
3sg hon hvætr 3pl þau hváta 3sg hon hváti 3pl þau hváti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hvét 1pl vér hvétum 1sg ek hvéta 1pl vér hvétim
2sg þú hvézt 2pl þér hvétuð 2sg þú hvétir 2pl þér hvétið
3sg hon hvét 3pl þau hvétu 3sg hon hvéti 3pl þau hvéti
preterite infinitive hvétu
past participle f. hvátin m. hvátinn n. hvátit
imperative 2sg hvát 1pl hvátum 2pl hvátið
middle voice: hvátask (not attested)
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hvátumk 1pl vér hvátumk 1sg ek hvátumk 1pl vér hvátimk
2sg þú hvæzk 2pl þér hvátizk 2sg þú hvátisk 2pl þér hvátizk
3sg hon hvæzk 3pl þau hvátask 3sg hon hvátisk 3pl þau hvátisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hvétumk 1pl vér hvétumk 1sg ek hvétumk 1pl vér hvétimk
2sg þú hvézk 2pl þér hvétuzk 2sg þú hvétisk 2pl þér hvétizk
3sg hon hvézk 3pl þau hvétusk 3sg hon hvétisk 3pl þau hvétisk
past participle n. hvátizk
imperative 2sg hvázk 1pl hvátumk 2pl hvátizk

PG hwētan. Preterite not attested. Inflected variants include weak participial hvátaðr.

consonant clusters

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

hǫggva VII “strike, hew”

“fell; decapitate, kill; slaugher; bite”

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek høgg 1pl vér hǫggum 1sg ek hǫggva 1pl vér hǫggvim
2sg þú høggr 2pl þér hǫggvið 2sg þú hǫggvir 2pl þér hǫggvið
3sg hon høggr 3pl þau hǫggva 3sg hon hǫggvi 3pl þau hǫggvi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hjó 1pl vér hjoggum 1sg ek høgga 1pl vér høggim
2sg þú hjótt 2pl þér hjogguð 2sg þú høggir 2pl þér høggið
3sg hon hjó 3pl þau hjoggu 3sg hon høggi 3pl þau høggi
preterite infinitive hjoggu
past participle f. hǫggvin m. hǫggvinn n. hǫggvit
imperative 2sg hǫgg 1pl hǫggum 2pl hǫggvið
middle voice: hǫggvask “fight”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hǫggumk 1pl vér hǫggumk 1sg ek hǫggumk 1pl vér hǫggvimk
2sg þú høggsk 2pl þér hǫggvizk 2sg þú hǫggvisk 2pl þér hǫggvizk
3sg hon høggsk 3pl þau hǫggvask 3sg hon hǫggvisk 3pl þau hǫggvisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hjoggumk 1pl vér hjoggumk 1sg ek høggumk 1pl vér høggimk
2sg þú hjózk 2pl þér hjogguzk 2sg þú høggisk 2pl þér høggizk
3sg hon hjósk 3pl þau hjoggusk 3sg hon høggisk 3pl þau høggisk
past participle n. hǫggvizk
imperative 2sg hǫggsk 1pl hǫggumk 2pl hǫggvizk

PG hawwan. Cognate with OE hēawan VII, ME heuen, MnE hew, Dutch houwen, German hauen; lexical variants hǫgga, heyggva; inflected variants include present indicative singular hegg, preterite hjogga/hjoggja, hjoggjum/hjuggum/hjuggjum.

v-alternation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

láta VII “let, allow”

“leave, abandon; lose, give up; order, cause; behave; pretend; respond (with approval or disapproval)”

transitive/impersonal transitive (acc)/intransitive/impersonal intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek læt 1pl vér látum 1sg ek láta 1pl vér látim
2sg þú lætr 2pl þér látið 2sg þú látir 2pl þér látið
3sg hon lætr 3pl þau láta 3sg hon láti 3pl þau láti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek lét 1pl vér létum 1sg ek léta 1pl vér létim
2sg þú lézt 2pl þér létuð 2sg þú létir 2pl þér létið
3sg hon lét 3pl þau létu 3sg hon léti 3pl þau léti
preterite infinitive létu
past participle f. látin m. látinn n. látit
imperative 2sg lát 1pl látum 2pl látið
middle voice: látask “die; behave, pretend; be said”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek látumk 1pl vér látumk 1sg ek látumk 1pl vér látimk
2sg þú læzk 2pl þér látizk 2sg þú látisk 2pl þér látizk
3sg hon læzk 3pl þau látask 3sg hon látisk 3pl þau látisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek létumk 1pl vér létumk 1sg ek létumk 1pl vér létimk
2sg þú lézk 2pl þér létuzk 2sg þú létisk 2pl þér létizk
3sg hon lézk 3pl þau létusk 3sg hon létisk 3pl þau létisk
past participle n. látizk
imperative 2sg lázk 1pl látumk 2pl látizk

PG lētan. Cognate with OE lǣtan VII, ME lēten, MnE let, Dutch laten, German lassen, Latin lassus “tired”; lexical variants lata, leta.

consonant clusters

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

leika VII “play”

“dance; rock; mock; swindle; attack”

transitive (dat/acc: varies by sense)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek leik 1pl vér leikum 1sg ek leika 1pl vér leikim
2sg þú leikr 2pl þér leikið 2sg þú leikir 2pl þér leikið
3sg hon leikr 3pl þau leika 3sg hon leiki 3pl þau leiki
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek lék 1pl vér lékum 1sg ek léka 1pl vér lékim
2sg þú lékt 2pl þér lékuð 2sg þú lékir 2pl þér lékið
3sg hon lék 3pl þau léku 3sg hon léki 3pl þau léki
preterite infinitive léku
past participle f. leikin m. leikinn n. leikit
imperative 2sg leik 1pl leikum 2pl leikið
middle voice: leikask “play; be done/performed”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek leikumk 1pl vér leikumk 1sg ek leikumk 1pl vér leikimk
2sg þú leiksk 2pl þér leikizk 2sg þú leikisk 2pl þér leikizk
3sg hon leiksk 3pl þau leikask 3sg hon leikisk 3pl þau leikisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek lékumk 1pl vér lékumk 1sg ek lékumk 1pl vér lékimk
2sg þú lékzk 2pl þér lékuzk 2sg þú lékisk 2pl þér lékizk
3sg hon léksk 3pl þau lékusk 3sg hon lékisk 3pl þau lékisk
past participle n. leikizk
imperative 2sg leiksk 1pl leikumk 2pl leikizk

PG laikan. Cognate with OE lācan VII, ME leiken.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

ráða VII “advise”

“deliberate; discuss; interpret; govern; resolve, decide; undertake; plot; travel; transport; deprive; punish; have intercourse with”

transitive (dat/acc)/intransitive/impersonal intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek ræð 1pl vér ráðum 1sg ek ráða 1pl vér ráðim
2sg þú ræðr 2pl þér ráðið 2sg þú ráðir 2pl þér ráðið
3sg hon ræðr 3pl þau ráða 3sg hon ráði 3pl þau ráði
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek réð 1pl vér réðum 1sg ek réða 1pl vér réðim
2sg þú rétt 2pl þér réðuð 2sg þú réðir 2pl þér réðið
3sg hon réð 3pl þau réðu 3sg hon réði 3pl þau réði
preterite infinitive réðu
past participle f. ráðin m. ráðinn n. ráðit
imperative 2sg ráð 1pl ráðum 2pl ráðið
middle voice: ráðask “take counsel; prepare oneself; be resolved; happen”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek ráðumk 1pl vér ráðumk 1sg ek ráðumk 1pl vér ráðimk
2sg þú ræzk 2pl þér ráðizk 2sg þú ráðisk 2pl þér ráðizk
3sg hon ræzk 3pl þau ráðask 3sg hon ráðisk 3pl þau ráðisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek réðumk 1pl vér réðumk 1sg ek réðumk 1pl vér réðimk
2sg þú rézk 2pl þér réðuzk 2sg þú réðisk 2pl þér réðizk
3sg hon rézk 3pl þau réðusk 3sg hon réðisk 3pl þau réðisk
past participle n. ráðizk
imperative 2sg rázk 1pl ráðumk 2pl ráðizk

PG rēdan. Cognate with OE rǣdan VII, 1, ME rēden, MnE read, Dutch raden, German raten “guess; advise”; variants include preterite indicative singular reið.

regressive assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

róa VII “row”

“rock”

transitive (dat of vessel/acc of body of water)/intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek 1pl vér róm 1sg ek róa 1pl vér róim
2sg þú rœr 2pl þér róið 2sg þú róir 2pl þér róið
3sg hon rœr 3pl þau róa 3sg hon rói 3pl þau rói
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek rera 1pl vér rerum 1sg ek rera 1pl vér rerim
2sg þú rerit 2pl þér reruð 2sg þú rerir 2pl þér rerið
3sg hon reri 3pl þau reru 3sg hon reri 3pl þau reri
preterite infinitive reru
past participle f. róin m. róinn n. róit
imperative 2sg 1pl róm 2pl róið
middle voice: róask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek rómk 1pl vér rómk 1sg ek rómk 1pl vér róimk
2sg þú rœsk 2pl þér róizk 2sg þú róisk 2pl þér róizk
3sg hon rœsk 3pl þau róask 3sg hon róisk 3pl þau róisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek rerumk 1pl vér rerumk 1sg ek rerumk 1pl vér rerimk
2sg þú rerizk 2pl þér reruzk 2sg þú rerisk 2pl þér rerizk
3sg hon rerisk 3pl þau rerusk 3sg hon rerisk 3pl þau rerisk
past participle n. róizk
imperative 2sg rósk 1pl rómk 2pl róizk

PG rōan. Cognate with OE rōwan VII, ME rouen, MnE row, Dutch roeien; cf. German rudern, Latin rēmus “oar”. Variants include preterite indicative singular røra/ræra/réra/reyra, plural róum.

reduplication

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

VII “sow”

“scatter”

transitive (dat of means/acc of field)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek 1pl vér sám 1sg ek 1pl vér sáim
2sg þú sær 2pl þér sáið 2sg þú sáir 2pl þér sáið
3sg hon sær 3pl þau 3sg hon sái 3pl þau sái
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sera 1pl vér serum 1sg ek sera 1pl vér serim
2sg þú serit 2pl þér seruð 2sg þú serir 2pl þér serið
3sg hon seri 3pl þau seru 3sg hon seri 3pl þau seri
preterite infinitive seru
past participle f. sáin m. sáinn n. sáit
imperative 2sg 1pl sám 2pl sáið
middle voice: sásk
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek sámk 1pl vér sámk 1sg ek sámk 1pl vér sáimk
2sg þú sæsk 2pl þér sáizk 2sg þú sáisk 2pl þér sáizk
3sg hon sæsk 3pl þau sásk 3sg hon sáisk 3pl þau sáisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek serumk 1pl vér serumk 1sg ek serumk 1pl vér serimk
2sg þú serizk 2pl þér seruzk 2sg þú serisk 2pl þér serizk
3sg hon serisk 3pl þau serusk 3sg hon serisk 3pl þau serisk
past participle n. sáizk
imperative 2sg sásk 1pl sámk 2pl sáizk

PG sēan. Cognate with OE sāwan VII, ME souen, MnE sow, Dutch zaaien, German säen, Latin serere; preterite variant søra.

reduplication  ·  vowel lengthening

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

snúa VII “turn”

“make one’s way; change; twist”

transitive/impersonal transitive (dat)/intransitive/impersonal intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek sný 1pl vér snúum 1sg ek snúa 1pl vér snúim
2sg þú snýr 2pl þér snúið 2sg þú snúir 2pl þér snúið
3sg hon snýr 3pl þau snúa 3sg hon snúi 3pl þau snúi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek snera 1pl vér snerum 1sg ek snera 1pl vér snerim
2sg þú snerit 2pl þér sneruð 2sg þú snerir 2pl þér snerið
3sg hon sneri 3pl þau sneru 3sg hon sneri 3pl þau sneri
preterite infinitive sneru
past participle f. snúin m. snúinn n. snúit
imperative 2sg snú 1pl snúum 2pl snúið
middle voice: snúask “turn; make one’s way”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek snúumk 1pl vér snúumk 1sg ek snúumk 1pl vér snúimk
2sg þú snýsk 2pl þér snúizk 2sg þú snúisk 2pl þér snúizk
3sg hon snýsk 3pl þau snúask 3sg hon snúisk 3pl þau snúisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek snerumk 1pl vér snerumk 1sg ek snerumk 1pl vér snerimk
2sg þú snerizk 2pl þér sneruzk 2sg þú snerisk 2pl þér snerizk
3sg hon snerisk 3pl þau snerusk 3sg hon snerisk 3pl þau snerisk
past participle n. snúizk
imperative 2sg snúsk 1pl snúumk 2pl snúizk

PG snōwan. Cognate with OE snēowan II, VII.

reduplication

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

sveipa VII “wrap, swaddle”

“cast”

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek sveip 1pl vér sveipum 1sg ek sveipa 1pl vér sveipim
2sg þú sveipr 2pl þér sveipið 2sg þú sveipir 2pl þér sveipið
3sg hon sveipr 3pl þau sveipa 3sg hon sveipi 3pl þau sveipi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sveip 1pl vér svipum 1sg ek svipa 1pl vér svipim
2sg þú sveipt 2pl þér svipuð 2sg þú svipir 2pl þér svipið
3sg hon sveip 3pl þau svipu 3sg hon svipi 3pl þau svipi
preterite infinitive svipu
past participle f. sveipin m. sveipinn n. sveipit
imperative 2sg sveip 1pl sveipum 2pl sveipið
middle voice: sveipask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek sveipumk 1pl vér sveipumk 1sg ek sveipumk 1pl vér sveipimk
2sg þú sveipsk 2pl þér sveipizk 2sg þú sveipisk 2pl þér sveipizk
3sg hon sveipsk 3pl þau sveipask 3sg hon sveipisk 3pl þau sveipisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek svipumk 1pl vér svipumk 1sg ek svipumk 1pl vér svipimk
2sg þú sveipzk 2pl þér svipuzk 2sg þú svipisk 2pl þér svipizk
3sg hon sveipsk 3pl þau svipusk 3sg hon svipisk 3pl þau svipisk
past participle n. sveipizk
imperative 2sg sveipsk 1pl sveipumk 2pl sveipizk

PG swaipan. Cognate with OE swāpan VII, ME swōpen, MnE swoop; the ME form also developed into ME swẹ̄pen, MnE sweep, whether or not with interference from ON svipa 2 “swoop; whip”. Related to the noun svipa “whip”, in turn cognate with Dutch zweep “whip”. Fragmentarily attested; more commonly found as class 2 weak. The pattern of conjugation is unique: the preterite forms are consistent with the first conjugation, but the attested present-tense and participial forms are not.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

© Paul Langeslag 2011, 2017