Class VI Strong Verbs

aka VI “drive (a vehicle)”

“cart; move, travel”

transitive (dat/acc)/intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek ek 1pl vér ǫkum 1sg ek aka 1pl vér akim
2sg þú ekr 2pl þér akið 2sg þú akir 2pl þér akið
3sg hon ekr 3pl þau aka 3sg hon aki 3pl þau aki
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek ók 1pl vér ókum 1sg ek œka 1pl vér œkim
2sg þú ókt 2pl þér ókuð 2sg þú œkir 2pl þér œkið
3sg hon ók 3pl þau óku 3sg hon œki 3pl þau œki
preterite infinitive óku
past participle f. ekin m. ekinn n. ekit
imperative 2sg ak 1pl ǫkum 2pl akið
middle voice: akask “move”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek ǫkumk 1pl vér ǫkumk 1sg ek ǫkumk 1pl vér akimk
2sg þú eksk 2pl þér akizk 2sg þú akisk 2pl þér akizk
3sg hon eksk 3pl þau akask 3sg hon akisk 3pl þau akisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek ókumk 1pl vér ókumk 1sg ek œkumk 1pl vér œkimk
2sg þú ókzk 2pl þér ókuzk 2sg þú œkisk 2pl þér œkizk
3sg hon óksk 3pl þau ókusk 3sg hon œkisk 3pl þau œkisk
past participle n. ekizk
imperative 2sg aksk 1pl ǫkumk 2pl akizk

Cognate with Latin agere “drive; do”.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

ala VI “beget”

“bear; raise; feed”

transitive (acc/dat of beneficiary)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek el 1pl vér ǫlum 1sg ek ala 1pl vér alim
2sg þú elr 2pl þér alið 2sg þú alir 2pl þér alið
3sg hon elr 3pl þau ala 3sg hon ali 3pl þau ali
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek ól 1pl vér ólum 1sg ek œla 1pl vér œlim
2sg þú ólt 2pl þér óluð 2sg þú œlir 2pl þér œlið
3sg hon ól 3pl þau ólu 3sg hon œli 3pl þau œli
preterite infinitive ólu
past participle f. alin m. alinn n. alit
imperative 2sg al 1pl ǫlum 2pl alið
middle voice: alask “be born, grow up”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek ǫlumk 1pl vér ǫlumk 1sg ek ǫlumk 1pl vér alimk
2sg þú elsk 2pl þér alizk 2sg þú alisk 2pl þér alizk
3sg hon elsk 3pl þau alask 3sg hon alisk 3pl þau alisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek ólumk 1pl vér ólumk 1sg ek œlumk 1pl vér œlimk
2sg þú ólzk 2pl þér óluzk 2sg þú œlisk 2pl þér œlizk
3sg hon ólsk 3pl þau ólusk 3sg hon œlisk 3pl þau œlisk
past participle n. alizk
imperative 2sg alsk 1pl ǫlumk 2pl alizk

Cognate with OE alan VI, Latin alere. Inflected variants include 2/3 singular el.

progressive assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

deyja VI “die”

“go numb”

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek dey 1pl vér deyjum 1sg ek deyja 1pl vér deyim
2sg þú deyr 2pl þér deyið 2sg þú deyir 2pl þér deyið
3sg hon deyr 3pl þau deyja 3sg hon deyi 3pl þau deyi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek 1pl vér dóm 1sg ek dœa 1pl vér dœim
2sg þú dótt 2pl þér dóð 2sg þú dœir 2pl þér dœið
3sg hon 3pl þau 3sg hon dœi 3pl þau dœi
preterite infinitive
past participle f. dáin m. dáinn n. dáit
imperative 2sg dey 1pl deyjum 2pl deyið
middle voice: deyjask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek deyjumk 1pl vér deyjumk 1sg ek deyjumk 1pl vér deyimk
2sg þú deysk 2pl þér deyizk 2sg þú deyisk 2pl þér deyizk
3sg hon deysk 3pl þau deyjask 3sg hon deyisk 3pl þau deyisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek dómk 1pl vér dómk 1sg ek dœumk 1pl vér dœimk
2sg þú dózk 2pl þér dózk 2sg þú dœisk 2pl þér dœizk
3sg hon dósk 3pl þau dósk 3sg hon dœisk 3pl þau dœisk
past participle n. dáizk
imperative 2sg deysk 1pl deyjumk 2pl deyizk

Source of late OE (or early ME) dēgan, ME dīen, MnE die.

j-alternation  ·  consonant lengthening

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

draga VI “haul, drag”

“inhale; gain, amass; extend”

transitive/impersonal transitive (acc/dat: varies by sense)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek dreg 1pl vér drǫgum 1sg ek draga 1pl vér dragim
2sg þú dregr 2pl þér dragið 2sg þú dragir 2pl þér dragið
3sg hon dregr 3pl þau draga 3sg hon dragi 3pl þau dragi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek dró 1pl vér drógum 1sg ek drœga 1pl vér drœgim
2sg þú drótt 2pl þér dróguð 2sg þú drœgir 2pl þér drœgið
3sg hon dró 3pl þau drógu 3sg hon drœgi 3pl þau drœgi
preterite infinitive drógu
past participle f. dregin m. dreginn n. dregit
imperative 2sg drag 1pl drǫgum 2pl dragið
middle voice: dragask “move”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek drǫgumk 1pl vér drǫgumk 1sg ek drǫgumk 1pl vér dragimk
2sg þú dregsk 2pl þér dragizk 2sg þú dragisk 2pl þér dragizk
3sg hon dregsk 3pl þau dragask 3sg hon dragisk 3pl þau dragisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek drógumk 1pl vér drógumk 1sg ek drœgumk 1pl vér drœgimk
2sg þú drózk 2pl þér dróguzk 2sg þú drœgisk 2pl þér drœgizk
3sg hon drósk 3pl þau drógusk 3sg hon drœgisk 3pl þau drœgisk
past participle n. dregizk
imperative 2sg dragsk 1pl drǫgumk 2pl dragizk

Cognate with OE dragan VI, ME drauen, MnE draw and source or cognate of drag; further cognates include Dutch dragen, German tragen “carry”, and perhaps Latin trahere “draw, drag”.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

fara VI “go”

“travel; die”

intransitive/impersonal intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek fer 1pl vér fǫrum 1sg ek fara 1pl vér farim
2sg þú ferr 2pl þér farið 2sg þú farir 2pl þér farið
3sg hon ferr 3pl þau fara 3sg hon fari 3pl þau fari
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek fór 1pl vér fórum 1sg ek fœra 1pl vér fœrim
2sg þú fórt 2pl þér fóruð 2sg þú fœrir 2pl þér fœrið
3sg hon fór 3pl þau fóru 3sg hon fœri 3pl þau fœri
preterite infinitive fóru
past participle f. farin m. farinn n. farit
imperative 2sg far 1pl fǫrum 2pl farið
middle voice: farask “fare; perish”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek fǫrumk 1pl vér fǫrumk 1sg ek fǫrumk 1pl vér farimk
2sg þú fersk 2pl þér farizk 2sg þú farisk 2pl þér farizk
3sg hon fersk 3pl þau farask 3sg hon farisk 3pl þau farisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek fórumk 1pl vér fórumk 1sg ek fœrumk 1pl vér fœrimk
2sg þú fórzk 2pl þér fóruzk 2sg þú fœrisk 2pl þér fœrizk
3sg hon fórsk 3pl þau fórusk 3sg hon fœrisk 3pl þau fœrisk
past participle n. farizk
imperative 2sg farsk 1pl fǫrumk 2pl farizk

Cognate with OE faran VI, ME fāren, MnE fare, Dutch varen, German fahren, Latin portāre “carry”, peritus “experienced”. Causatives are fœra 1, ferja 1.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

flá VI “flay, skin”

“strip, undress”

transitive (acc/dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek flæ 1pl vér flám 1sg ek flá 1pl vér fláim
2sg þú flær 2pl þér fláið 2sg þú fláir 2pl þér fláið
3sg hon flær 3pl þau flá 3sg hon flái 3pl þau flái
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek fló 1pl vér flógum 1sg ek flœga 1pl vér flœgim
2sg þú flótt 2pl þér flóguð 2sg þú flœgir 2pl þér flœgið
3sg hon fló 3pl þau flógu 3sg hon flœgi 3pl þau flœgi
preterite infinitive flógu
past participle f. flegin m. fleginn n. flegit
imperative 2sg flá 1pl flám 2pl fláið
middle voice: flásk “strip, undress”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek flámk 1pl vér flámk 1sg ek flámk 1pl vér fláimk
2sg þú flæsk 2pl þér fláizk 2sg þú fláisk 2pl þér fláizk
3sg hon flæsk 3pl þau flásk 3sg hon fláisk 3pl þau fláisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek flógumk 1pl vér flógumk 1sg ek flœgumk 1pl vér flœgimk
2sg þú flózk 2pl þér flóguzk 2sg þú flœgisk 2pl þér flœgizk
3sg hon flósk 3pl þau flógusk 3sg hon flœgisk 3pl þau flœgisk
past participle n. flegizk
imperative 2sg flásk 1pl flámk 2pl fláizk

Cognate with OE flēan VI, ME flēn, MnE flay.

contraction  ·  vowel lengthening  ·  consonant lengthening

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

gala VI “crow, cry”

“sing”

transitive (acc of thing/dat of beneficiary)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gel 1pl vér gǫlum 1sg ek gala 1pl vér galim
2sg þú gelr 2pl þér galið 2sg þú galir 2pl þér galið
3sg hon gelr 3pl þau gala 3sg hon gali 3pl þau gali
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gól 1pl vér gólum 1sg ek gœla 1pl vér gœlim
2sg þú gólt 2pl þér góluð 2sg þú gœlir 2pl þér gœlið
3sg hon gól 3pl þau gólu 3sg hon gœli 3pl þau gœli
preterite infinitive gólu
past participle f. galin m. galinn n. galit
imperative 2sg gal 1pl gǫlum 2pl galið
middle voice: galask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gǫlumk 1pl vér gǫlumk 1sg ek gǫlumk 1pl vér galimk
2sg þú gelsk 2pl þér galizk 2sg þú galisk 2pl þér galizk
3sg hon gelsk 3pl þau galask 3sg hon galisk 3pl þau galisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gólumk 1pl vér gólumk 1sg ek gœlumk 1pl vér gœlimk
2sg þú gólzk 2pl þér góluzk 2sg þú gœlisk 2pl þér gœlizk
3sg hon gólsk 3pl þau gólusk 3sg hon gœlisk 3pl þau gœlisk
past participle n. galizk
imperative 2sg galsk 1pl gǫlumk 2pl galizk

Cognate with OE galan VI, ME gālen, and the second element in MnE nightingale.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

geyja VI “bark”

“verbally abuse”

intransitive/transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gey 1pl vér geyjum 1sg ek geyja 1pl vér geyim
2sg þú geyr 2pl þér geyið 2sg þú geyir 2pl þér geyið
3sg hon geyr 3pl þau geyja 3sg hon geyi 3pl þau geyi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek 1pl vér góm 1sg ek gœa 1pl vér gœim
2sg þú gótt 2pl þér góð 2sg þú gœir 2pl þér gœið
3sg hon 3pl þau 3sg hon gœi 3pl þau gœi
preterite infinitive
past participle f. gáin m. gáinn n. gáit
imperative 2sg gey 1pl geyjum 2pl geyið
middle voice: geyjask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek geyjumk 1pl vér geyjumk 1sg ek geyjumk 1pl vér geyimk
2sg þú geysk 2pl þér geyizk 2sg þú geyisk 2pl þér geyizk
3sg hon geysk 3pl þau geyjask 3sg hon geyisk 3pl þau geyisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gómk 1pl vér gómk 1sg ek gœumk 1pl vér gœimk
2sg þú gózk 2pl þér gózk 2sg þú gœisk 2pl þér gœizk
3sg hon gósk 3pl þau gósk 3sg hon gœisk 3pl þau gœisk
past participle n. gáizk
imperative 2sg geysk 1pl geyjumk 2pl geyizk

Cognate with weak OE gōian 2, gēn 1 “groan, lament”.

j-alternation  ·  consonant lengthening

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

gnaga VI “gnaw”

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gneg 1pl vér gnǫgum 1sg ek gnaga 1pl vér gnagim
2sg þú gnegr 2pl þér gnagið 2sg þú gnagir 2pl þér gnagið
3sg hon gnegr 3pl þau gnaga 3sg hon gnagi 3pl þau gnagi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gnó 1pl vér gnógum 1sg ek gnœga 1pl vér gnœgim
2sg þú gnótt 2pl þér gnóguð 2sg þú gnœgir 2pl þér gnœgið
3sg hon gnó 3pl þau gnógu 3sg hon gnœgi 3pl þau gnœgi
preterite infinitive gnógu
past participle f. gnagin m. gnaginn n. gnagit
imperative 2sg gnag 1pl gnǫgum 2pl gnagið
middle voice: gnagask (not attested)
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gnǫgumk 1pl vér gnǫgumk 1sg ek gnǫgumk 1pl vér gnagimk
2sg þú gnegsk 2pl þér gnagizk 2sg þú gnagisk 2pl þér gnagizk
3sg hon gnegsk 3pl þau gnagask 3sg hon gnagisk 3pl þau gnagisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gnógumk 1pl vér gnógumk 1sg ek gnœgumk 1pl vér gnœgimk
2sg þú gnózk 2pl þér gnóguzk 2sg þú gnœgisk 2pl þér gnœgizk
3sg hon gnósk 3pl þau gnógusk 3sg hon gnœgisk 3pl þau gnœgisk
past participle n. gnagizk
imperative 2sg gnagsk 1pl gnǫgumk 2pl gnagizk

Cognate with OE gnagan VI, ME gnauen, MnE gnaw, Dutch, German knagen. Lexical variant naga; the verb is almost exclusively found as class 2 weak, with only the present singular and past participle exceptionally found strong.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

grafa VI “dig”

“dig up; bury; study; carve; fester”

transitive/impersonal transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gref 1pl vér grǫfum 1sg ek grafa 1pl vér grafim
2sg þú grefr 2pl þér grafið 2sg þú grafir 2pl þér grafið
3sg hon grefr 3pl þau grafa 3sg hon grafi 3pl þau grafi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gróf 1pl vér grófum 1sg ek grœfa 1pl vér grœfim
2sg þú gróft 2pl þér grófuð 2sg þú grœfir 2pl þér grœfið
3sg hon gróf 3pl þau grófu 3sg hon grœfi 3pl þau grœfi
preterite infinitive grófu
past participle f. grafin m. grafinn n. grafit
imperative 2sg graf 1pl grǫfum 2pl grafið
middle voice: grafask “crawl, drag oneself; turn rough (of the sea)”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek grǫfumk 1pl vér grǫfumk 1sg ek grǫfumk 1pl vér grafimk
2sg þú grefsk 2pl þér grafizk 2sg þú grafisk 2pl þér grafizk
3sg hon grefsk 3pl þau grafask 3sg hon grafisk 3pl þau grafisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek grófumk 1pl vér grófumk 1sg ek grœfumk 1pl vér grœfimk
2sg þú grófzk 2pl þér grófuzk 2sg þú grœfisk 2pl þér grœfizk
3sg hon grófsk 3pl þau grófusk 3sg hon grœfisk 3pl þau grœfisk
past participle n. grafizk
imperative 2sg grafsk 1pl grǫfumk 2pl grafizk

Cognate with OE grafan VI, ME grāven, MnE grave, Dutch graven, German graben.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

hnafa VI “cut, chop”

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hnef 1pl vér hnǫfum 1sg ek hnafa 1pl vér hnafim
2sg þú hnefr 2pl þér hnafið 2sg þú hnafir 2pl þér hnafið
3sg hon hnefr 3pl þau hnafa 3sg hon hnafi 3pl þau hnafi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hnóf 1pl vér hnófum 1sg ek hnœfa 1pl vér hnœfim
2sg þú hnóft 2pl þér hnófuð 2sg þú hnœfir 2pl þér hnœfið
3sg hon hnóf 3pl þau hnófu 3sg hon hnœfi 3pl þau hnœfi
preterite infinitive hnófu
past participle f. hnafin m. hnafinn n. hnafit
imperative 2sg hnaf 1pl hnǫfum 2pl hnafið
middle voice: hnafask (not attested)
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hnǫfumk 1pl vér hnǫfumk 1sg ek hnǫfumk 1pl vér hnafimk
2sg þú hnefsk 2pl þér hnafizk 2sg þú hnafisk 2pl þér hnafizk
3sg hon hnefsk 3pl þau hnafask 3sg hon hnafisk 3pl þau hnafisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hnófumk 1pl vér hnófumk 1sg ek hnœfumk 1pl vér hnœfimk
2sg þú hnófzk 2pl þér hnófuzk 2sg þú hnœfisk 2pl þér hnœfizk
3sg hon hnófsk 3pl þau hnófusk 3sg hon hnœfisk 3pl þau hnœfisk
past participle n. hnafizk
imperative 2sg hnafsk 1pl hnǫfumk 2pl hnafizk

Probably the same root as Latin cinis “ashes”; only the form hnóf is attested.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

hefja VI “lift (up)”

“begin; bring up in conversation; baptize”

transitive/impersonal transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hef 1pl vér hefjum 1sg ek hefja 1pl vér hefim
2sg þú hefr 2pl þér hefið 2sg þú hefir 2pl þér hefið
3sg hon hefr 3pl þau hefja 3sg hon hefi 3pl þau hefi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hóf 1pl vér hófum 1sg ek hœfa 1pl vér hœfim
2sg þú hóft 2pl þér hófuð 2sg þú hœfir 2pl þér hœfið
3sg hon hóf 3pl þau hófu 3sg hon hœfi 3pl þau hœfi
preterite infinitive hófu
past participle f. hafin m. hafinn n. hafit
imperative 2sg hef 1pl hefjum 2pl hefið
middle voice: hefjask “rise; commence”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hefjumk 1pl vér hefjumk 1sg ek hefjumk 1pl vér hefimk
2sg þú hefsk 2pl þér hefizk 2sg þú hefisk 2pl þér hefizk
3sg hon hefsk 3pl þau hefjask 3sg hon hefisk 3pl þau hefisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hófumk 1pl vér hófumk 1sg ek hœfumk 1pl vér hœfimk
2sg þú hófzk 2pl þér hófuzk 2sg þú hœfisk 2pl þér hœfizk
3sg hon hófsk 3pl þau hófusk 3sg hon hœfisk 3pl þau hœfisk
past participle n. hafizk
imperative 2sg hefsk 1pl hefjumk 2pl hefizk

Cognate with OE hebban VI, ME hēven, MnE heave, Dutch heffen, German heben.

j-alternation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

hlaða VI “load”

“pile; build; fell, kill”

transitive (acc/dat: varies by sense)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hleð 1pl vér hlǫðum 1sg ek hlaða 1pl vér hlaðim
2sg þú hleðr 2pl þér hlaðið 2sg þú hlaðir 2pl þér hlaðið
3sg hon hleðr 3pl þau hlaða 3sg hon hlaði 3pl þau hlaði
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hlóð 1pl vér hlóðum 1sg ek hlœða 1pl vér hlœðim
2sg þú hlótt 2pl þér hlóðuð 2sg þú hlœðir 2pl þér hlœðið
3sg hon hlóð 3pl þau hlóðu 3sg hon hlœði 3pl þau hlœði
preterite infinitive hlóðu
past participle f. hlaðin m. hlaðinn n. hlaðit
imperative 2sg hlað 1pl hlǫðum 2pl hlaðið
middle voice: hlaðask “throng”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hlǫðumk 1pl vér hlǫðumk 1sg ek hlǫðumk 1pl vér hlaðimk
2sg þú hlezk 2pl þér hlaðizk 2sg þú hlaðisk 2pl þér hlaðizk
3sg hon hlezk 3pl þau hlaðask 3sg hon hlaðisk 3pl þau hlaðisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hlóðumk 1pl vér hlóðumk 1sg ek hlœðumk 1pl vér hlœðimk
2sg þú hlózk 2pl þér hlóðuzk 2sg þú hlœðisk 2pl þér hlœðizk
3sg hon hlózk 3pl þau hlóðusk 3sg hon hlœðisk 3pl þau hlœðisk
past participle n. hlaðizk
imperative 2sg hlazk 1pl hlǫðumk 2pl hlaðizk

Cognate with OE hladan VI, ME lāden, only related to MnE load by way of the noun. Further cognates include Dutch, German laden.

regressive assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

hlæja VI “laugh”

“ridicule”

intransitive/transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hlæ 1pl vér hlæjum 1sg ek hlæja 1pl vér hlæim
2sg þú hlær 2pl þér hlæið 2sg þú hlæir 2pl þér hlæið
3sg hon hlær 3pl þau hlæja 3sg hon hlæi 3pl þau hlæi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hló 1pl vér hlógum 1sg ek hlœga 1pl vér hlœgim
2sg þú hlótt 2pl þér hlóguð 2sg þú hlœgir 2pl þér hlœgið
3sg hon hló 3pl þau hlógu 3sg hon hlœgi 3pl þau hlœgi
preterite infinitive hlógu
past participle f. hlegin m. hleginn n. hlegit
imperative 2sg hlæ 1pl hlæjum 2pl hlæið
middle voice: hlæjask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hlæjumk 1pl vér hlæjumk 1sg ek hlæjumk 1pl vér hlæimk
2sg þú hlæsk 2pl þér hlæizk 2sg þú hlæisk 2pl þér hlæizk
3sg hon hlæsk 3pl þau hlæjask 3sg hon hlæisk 3pl þau hlæisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hlógumk 1pl vér hlógumk 1sg ek hlœgumk 1pl vér hlœgimk
2sg þú hlózk 2pl þér hlóguzk 2sg þú hlœgisk 2pl þér hlœgizk
3sg hon hlósk 3pl þau hlógusk 3sg hon hlœgisk 3pl þau hlœgisk
past participle n. hlegizk
imperative 2sg hlæsk 1pl hlæjumk 2pl hlæizk

Cognate with OE hlyhhan VI, ME laughen, MnE laugh, Dutch, German lachen.

j-alternation  ·  consonant lengthening

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

kala VI “cool, freeze”

impersonal transitive/transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek kel 1pl vér kǫlum 1sg ek kala 1pl vér kalim
2sg þú kell 2pl þér kalið 2sg þú kalir 2pl þér kalið
3sg hon kell 3pl þau kala 3sg hon kali 3pl þau kali
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek kól 1pl vér kólum 1sg ek kœla 1pl vér kœlim
2sg þú kólt 2pl þér kóluð 2sg þú kœlir 2pl þér kœlið
3sg hon kól 3pl þau kólu 3sg hon kœli 3pl þau kœli
preterite infinitive kólu
past participle f. kalin m. kalinn n. kalit
imperative 2sg kal 1pl kǫlum 2pl kalið
middle voice: kalask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek kǫlumk 1pl vér kǫlumk 1sg ek kǫlumk 1pl vér kalimk
2sg þú kelsk 2pl þér kalizk 2sg þú kalisk 2pl þér kalizk
3sg hon kelsk 3pl þau kalask 3sg hon kalisk 3pl þau kalisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek kólumk 1pl vér kólumk 1sg ek kœlumk 1pl vér kœlimk
2sg þú kólzk 2pl þér kóluzk 2sg þú kœlisk 2pl þér kœlizk
3sg hon kólsk 3pl þau kólusk 3sg hon kœlisk 3pl þau kœlisk
past participle n. kalizk
imperative 2sg kalsk 1pl kǫlumk 2pl kalizk

Cognate with OE calan VI. Inflected variants include 2/3 singular kelr.

progressive assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

kefja VI “submerge”

“defeat”

transitive/impersonal transitive (acc)/intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek kef 1pl vér kefjum 1sg ek kefja 1pl vér kefim
2sg þú kefr 2pl þér kefið 2sg þú kefir 2pl þér kefið
3sg hon kefr 3pl þau kefja 3sg hon kefi 3pl þau kefi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek kóf 1pl vér kófum 1sg ek kœfa 1pl vér kœfim
2sg þú kóft 2pl þér kófuð 2sg þú kœfir 2pl þér kœfið
3sg hon kóf 3pl þau kófu 3sg hon kœfi 3pl þau kœfi
preterite infinitive kófu
past participle f. kafin m. kafinn n. kafit
imperative 2sg kef 1pl kefjum 2pl kefið
middle voice: kefjask “duck, dive; be extinguished”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek kefjumk 1pl vér kefjumk 1sg ek kefjumk 1pl vér kefimk
2sg þú kefsk 2pl þér kefizk 2sg þú kefisk 2pl þér kefizk
3sg hon kefsk 3pl þau kefjask 3sg hon kefisk 3pl þau kefisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek kófumk 1pl vér kófumk 1sg ek kœfumk 1pl vér kœfimk
2sg þú kófzk 2pl þér kófuzk 2sg þú kœfisk 2pl þér kœfizk
3sg hon kófsk 3pl þau kófusk 3sg hon kœfisk 3pl þau kœfisk
past participle n. kafizk
imperative 2sg kefsk 1pl kefjumk 2pl kefizk

Also kvefja, but most commonly found as class 1 weak in both lexical forms (preterite kafða, kvafða); source of ME kēven.

j-alternation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

klá VI “scratch, rub”

transitive (acc/dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek klæ 1pl vér klám 1sg ek klá 1pl vér kláim
2sg þú klær 2pl þér kláið 2sg þú kláir 2pl þér kláið
3sg hon klær 3pl þau klá 3sg hon klái 3pl þau klái
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek kló 1pl vér klógum 1sg ek klœga 1pl vér klœgim
2sg þú klótt 2pl þér klóguð 2sg þú klœgir 2pl þér klœgið
3sg hon kló 3pl þau klógu 3sg hon klœgi 3pl þau klœgi
preterite infinitive klógu
past participle f. klegin m. kleginn n. klegit
imperative 2sg klá 1pl klám 2pl kláið
middle voice: klásk
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek klámk 1pl vér klámk 1sg ek klámk 1pl vér kláimk
2sg þú klæsk 2pl þér kláizk 2sg þú kláisk 2pl þér kláizk
3sg hon klæsk 3pl þau klásk 3sg hon kláisk 3pl þau kláisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek klógumk 1pl vér klógumk 1sg ek klœgumk 1pl vér klœgimk
2sg þú klózk 2pl þér klóguzk 2sg þú klœgisk 2pl þér klœgizk
3sg hon klósk 3pl þau klógusk 3sg hon klœgisk 3pl þau klœgisk
past participle n. klegizk
imperative 2sg klásk 1pl klámk 2pl kláizk

Cognate with OE clāwan ?VII, weak clāwian 2, ME clauen, MnE claw, Dutch klauwen “claw”, German klauen “steal”.

consonant lengthening

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

mala VI “grind, mill”

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek mel 1pl vér mǫlum 1sg ek mala 1pl vér malim
2sg þú melr 2pl þér malið 2sg þú malir 2pl þér malið
3sg hon melr 3pl þau mala 3sg hon mali 3pl þau mali
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek mól 1pl vér mólum 1sg ek mœla 1pl vér mœlim
2sg þú mólt 2pl þér móluð 2sg þú mœlir 2pl þér mœlið
3sg hon mól 3pl þau mólu 3sg hon mœli 3pl þau mœli
preterite infinitive mólu
past participle f. malin m. malinn n. malit
imperative 2sg mal 1pl mǫlum 2pl malið
middle voice: malask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek mǫlumk 1pl vér mǫlumk 1sg ek mǫlumk 1pl vér malimk
2sg þú melsk 2pl þér malizk 2sg þú malisk 2pl þér malizk
3sg hon melsk 3pl þau malask 3sg hon malisk 3pl þau malisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek mólumk 1pl vér mólumk 1sg ek mœlumk 1pl vér mœlimk
2sg þú mólzk 2pl þér móluzk 2sg þú mœlisk 2pl þér mœlizk
3sg hon mólsk 3pl þau mólusk 3sg hon mœlisk 3pl þau mœlisk
past participle n. malizk
imperative 2sg malsk 1pl mǫlumk 2pl malizk

Cognate with OS malen, Dutch malen, German mahlen, Latin molere; MnE mill was formed from the MnE noun. Inflected variants include 2/3 singular mell, but in fact the present tense is more commonly class 2 weak.

progressive assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

skafa VI “scrape”

“erase; shave, plane”

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek skef 1pl vér skǫfum 1sg ek skafa 1pl vér skafim
2sg þú skefr 2pl þér skafið 2sg þú skafir 2pl þér skafið
3sg hon skefr 3pl þau skafa 3sg hon skafi 3pl þau skafi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek skóf 1pl vér skófum 1sg ek skœfa 1pl vér skœfim
2sg þú skóft 2pl þér skófuð 2sg þú skœfir 2pl þér skœfið
3sg hon skóf 3pl þau skófu 3sg hon skœfi 3pl þau skœfi
preterite infinitive skófu
past participle f. skafin m. skafinn n. skafit
imperative 2sg skaf 1pl skǫfum 2pl skafið
middle voice: skafask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek skǫfumk 1pl vér skǫfumk 1sg ek skǫfumk 1pl vér skafimk
2sg þú skefsk 2pl þér skafizk 2sg þú skafisk 2pl þér skafizk
3sg hon skefsk 3pl þau skafask 3sg hon skafisk 3pl þau skafisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek skófumk 1pl vér skófumk 1sg ek skœfumk 1pl vér skœfimk
2sg þú skófzk 2pl þér skófuzk 2sg þú skœfisk 2pl þér skœfizk
3sg hon skófsk 3pl þau skófusk 3sg hon skœfisk 3pl þau skœfisk
past participle n. skafizk
imperative 2sg skafsk 1pl skǫfumk 2pl skafizk

Cognate with OE sceafan VI, ME shāven, MnE shave, Dutch schaven, German schaben, Latin scabere.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

skaka VI “shake”

“shake loose”

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek skek 1pl vér skǫkum 1sg ek skaka 1pl vér skakim
2sg þú skekr 2pl þér skakið 2sg þú skakir 2pl þér skakið
3sg hon skekr 3pl þau skaka 3sg hon skaki 3pl þau skaki
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek skók 1pl vér skókum 1sg ek skœka 1pl vér skœkim
2sg þú skókt 2pl þér skókuð 2sg þú skœkir 2pl þér skœkið
3sg hon skók 3pl þau skóku 3sg hon skœki 3pl þau skœki
preterite infinitive skóku
past participle f. skekin m. skekinn n. skekit
imperative 2sg skak 1pl skǫkum 2pl skakið
middle voice: skakask “tremble; be afraid”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek skǫkumk 1pl vér skǫkumk 1sg ek skǫkumk 1pl vér skakimk
2sg þú skeksk 2pl þér skakizk 2sg þú skakisk 2pl þér skakizk
3sg hon skeksk 3pl þau skakask 3sg hon skakisk 3pl þau skakisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek skókumk 1pl vér skókumk 1sg ek skœkumk 1pl vér skœkimk
2sg þú skókzk 2pl þér skókuzk 2sg þú skœkisk 2pl þér skœkizk
3sg hon skóksk 3pl þau skókusk 3sg hon skœkisk 3pl þau skœkisk
past participle n. skekizk
imperative 2sg skaksk 1pl skǫkumk 2pl skakizk

Cognate with OE sceacan VI, ME shāken, MnE shake.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

skepja VI “form, make”

“determine, fix; bring about; begin”

transitive (acc of object/dat of beneficiary)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek skep 1pl vér skepjum 1sg ek skepja 1pl vér skepim
2sg þú skepr 2pl þér skepið 2sg þú skepir 2pl þér skepið
3sg hon skepr 3pl þau skepja 3sg hon skepi 3pl þau skepi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek skóp 1pl vér skópum 1sg ek skœpa 1pl vér skœpim
2sg þú skópt 2pl þér skópuð 2sg þú skœpir 2pl þér skœpið
3sg hon skóp 3pl þau skópu 3sg hon skœpi 3pl þau skœpi
preterite infinitive skópu
past participle f. skapin m. skapinn n. skapit
imperative 2sg skep 1pl skepjum 2pl skepið
middle voice: skepjask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek skepjumk 1pl vér skepjumk 1sg ek skepjumk 1pl vér skepimk
2sg þú skepsk 2pl þér skepizk 2sg þú skepisk 2pl þér skepizk
3sg hon skepsk 3pl þau skepjask 3sg hon skepisk 3pl þau skepisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek skópumk 1pl vér skópumk 1sg ek skœpumk 1pl vér skœpimk
2sg þú skópzk 2pl þér skópuzk 2sg þú skœpisk 2pl þér skœpizk
3sg hon skópsk 3pl þau skópusk 3sg hon skœpisk 3pl þau skœpisk
past participle n. skapizk
imperative 2sg skepsk 1pl skepjumk 2pl skepizk

Cognate with OE scyppan VI, ME shāpen, MnE shape, Dutch scheppen, German schaffen; more commonly attested as weak skepja 1 but especially as skapa 2, which governs the middle voice senses of the verb.

j-alternation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

slá VI “strike”

“kill”

transitive/impersonal transitive (acc/dat: varies by sense)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek slæ 1pl vér slám 1sg ek slá 1pl vér sláim
2sg þú slær 2pl þér sláið 2sg þú sláir 2pl þér sláið
3sg hon slær 3pl þau slá 3sg hon slái 3pl þau slái
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sló 1pl vér slógum 1sg ek slœga 1pl vér slœgim
2sg þú slótt 2pl þér slóguð 2sg þú slœgir 2pl þér slœgið
3sg hon sló 3pl þau slógu 3sg hon slœgi 3pl þau slœgi
preterite infinitive slógu
past participle f. slegin m. sleginn n. slegit
imperative 2sg slá 1pl slám 2pl sláið
middle voice: slásk “dash, go”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek slámk 1pl vér slámk 1sg ek slámk 1pl vér sláimk
2sg þú slæsk 2pl þér sláizk 2sg þú sláisk 2pl þér sláizk
3sg hon slæsk 3pl þau slásk 3sg hon sláisk 3pl þau sláisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek slógumk 1pl vér slógumk 1sg ek slœgumk 1pl vér slœgimk
2sg þú slózk 2pl þér slóguzk 2sg þú slœgisk 2pl þér slœgizk
3sg hon slósk 3pl þau slógusk 3sg hon slœgisk 3pl þau slœgisk
past participle n. sleizk
imperative 2sg slásk 1pl slámk 2pl sláizk

Cognate with OE slēan VI and probably of influence on ME slēn, MnE slay; further cognates include Dutch slaan, German schlagen. Cf. denominal class 1 weak slá “bolt”. Variants include present indicative plural sláum, preterite singular slera/sløra, plural slerum/slørum.

vowel lengthening  ·  consonant lengthening

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

standa VI “stand”

“remain; result; be headed; extend; encounter”

intransitive/transitive/impersonal transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek stend 1pl vér stǫndum 1sg ek standa 1pl vér standim
2sg þú stendr 2pl þér standið 2sg þú standir 2pl þér standið
3sg hon stendr 3pl þau standa 3sg hon standi 3pl þau standi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek stóð 1pl vér stóðum 1sg ek stœða 1pl vér stœðim
2sg þú stótt 2pl þér stóðuð 2sg þú stœðir 2pl þér stœðið
3sg hon stóð 3pl þau stóðu 3sg hon stœði 3pl þau stœði
preterite infinitive stóðu
past participle f. staðin m. staðinn n. staðit
imperative 2sg statt 1pl stǫndum 2pl standið
middle voice: standask “stand, remain standing; withstand”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek stǫndumk 1pl vér stǫndumk 1sg ek stǫndumk 1pl vér standimk
2sg þú stenzk 2pl þér standizk 2sg þú standisk 2pl þér standizk
3sg hon stenzk 3pl þau standask 3sg hon standisk 3pl þau standisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek stóðumk 1pl vér stóðumk 1sg ek stœðumk 1pl vér stœðimk
2sg þú stózk 2pl þér stóðuzk 2sg þú stœðisk 2pl þér stœðizk
3sg hon stózk 3pl þau stóðusk 3sg hon stœðisk 3pl þau stœðisk
past participle n. staðizk
imperative 2sg stazk 1pl stǫndumk 2pl standizk

Cognate with OE standan VI, ME stō̆nden, MnE stand, Dutch staan, German stehen, Latin stāre.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

sverja VI “swear (an oath)”

transitive (acc of oath/dat of addressee)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek sver 1pl vér sverjum 1sg ek sverja 1pl vér sverim
2sg þú sverr 2pl þér sverið 2sg þú sverir 2pl þér sverið
3sg hon sverr 3pl þau sverja 3sg hon sveri 3pl þau sveri
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sór 1pl vér sórum 1sg ek sœra 1pl vér sœrim
2sg þú sórt 2pl þér sóruð 2sg þú sœrir 2pl þér sœrið
3sg hon sór 3pl þau sóru 3sg hon sœri 3pl þau sœri
preterite infinitive sóru
past participle f. svarin m. svarinn n. svarit
imperative 2sg sver 1pl sverjum 2pl sverið
middle voice: sverjask “be sworn in”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek sverjumk 1pl vér sverjumk 1sg ek sverjumk 1pl vér sverimk
2sg þú sversk 2pl þér sverizk 2sg þú sverisk 2pl þér sverizk
3sg hon sversk 3pl þau sverjask 3sg hon sverisk 3pl þau sverisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sórumk 1pl vér sórumk 1sg ek sœrumk 1pl vér sœrimk
2sg þú sórzk 2pl þér sóruzk 2sg þú sœrisk 2pl þér sœrizk
3sg hon sórsk 3pl þau sórusk 3sg hon sœrisk 3pl þau sœrisk
past participle n. svarizk
imperative 2sg sversk 1pl sverjumk 2pl sverizk

Cognate with OE swerian VI, ME swēren, MnE swear, Dutch zweren, German schwören; variants include preterite indicative singular svór, plural svórum; also found as class 1 weak.

j-alternation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

taka VI “take”

“choose, resolve; begin; reach, touch; receive”

transitive/impersonal transitive (acc/dat/clausal object: varies by sense)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek tek 1pl vér tǫkum 1sg ek taka 1pl vér takim
2sg þú tekr 2pl þér takið 2sg þú takir 2pl þér takið
3sg hon tekr 3pl þau taka 3sg hon taki 3pl þau taki
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek tók 1pl vér tókum 1sg ek tœka 1pl vér tœkim
2sg þú tókt 2pl þér tókuð 2sg þú tœkir 2pl þér tœkið
3sg hon tók 3pl þau tóku 3sg hon tœki 3pl þau tœki
preterite infinitive tóku
past participle f. tekin m. tekinn n. tekit
imperative 2sg tak 1pl tǫkum 2pl takið
middle voice: takask “begin, take place”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek tǫkumk 1pl vér tǫkumk 1sg ek tǫkumk 1pl vér takimk
2sg þú teksk 2pl þér takizk 2sg þú takisk 2pl þér takizk
3sg hon teksk 3pl þau takask 3sg hon takisk 3pl þau takisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek tókumk 1pl vér tókumk 1sg ek tœkumk 1pl vér tœkimk
2sg þú tókzk 2pl þér tókuzk 2sg þú tœkisk 2pl þér tœkizk
3sg hon tóksk 3pl þau tókusk 3sg hon tœkisk 3pl þau tœkisk
past participle n. tekizk
imperative 2sg taksk 1pl tǫkumk 2pl takizk

The source of ME tāken, MnE take.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

vaða VI “wade”

“storm; move”

transitive (acc)/intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek veð 1pl vér vǫðum 1sg ek vaða 1pl vér vaðim
2sg þú veðr 2pl þér vaðið 2sg þú vaðir 2pl þér vaðið
3sg hon veðr 3pl þau vaða 3sg hon vaði 3pl þau vaði
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek óð 1pl vér óðum 1sg ek œða 1pl vér œðim
2sg þú ótt 2pl þér óðuð 2sg þú œðir 2pl þér œðið
3sg hon óð 3pl þau óðu 3sg hon œði 3pl þau œði
preterite infinitive óðu
past participle f. vaðin m. vaðinn n. vaðit
imperative 2sg vað 1pl vǫðum 2pl vaðið
middle voice: vaðask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek vǫðumk 1pl vér vǫðumk 1sg ek vǫðumk 1pl vér vaðimk
2sg þú vezk 2pl þér vaðizk 2sg þú vaðisk 2pl þér vaðizk
3sg hon vezk 3pl þau vaðask 3sg hon vaðisk 3pl þau vaðisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek óðumk 1pl vér óðumk 1sg ek œðumk 1pl vér œðimk
2sg þú ózk 2pl þér óðuzk 2sg þú œðisk 2pl þér œðizk
3sg hon ózk 3pl þau óðusk 3sg hon œðisk 3pl þau œðisk
past participle n. vaðizk
imperative 2sg vazk 1pl vǫðumk 2pl vaðizk

Cognate with OE wadan VI “go”, ME wāden “go; wade”, MnE wade, Dutch waden, German waten, Latin vadāre “wade”, vādere “go”; preterite indicative variants vóð, vóðum.

loss of w  ·  regressive assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

vaxa VI “grow”

“grow up; increase; come about”

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek vex 1pl vér vǫxum 1sg ek vaxa 1pl vér vaxim
2sg þú vex 2pl þér vaxið 2sg þú vaxir 2pl þér vaxið
3sg hon vex 3pl þau vaxa 3sg hon vaxi 3pl þau vaxi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek óx 1pl vér óxum 1sg ek œxa 1pl vér œxim
2sg þú óxt 2pl þér óxuð 2sg þú œxir 2pl þér œxið
3sg hon óx 3pl þau óxu 3sg hon œxi 3pl þau œxi
preterite infinitive óxu
past participle f. vaxin m. vaxinn n. vaxit
imperative 2sg vax 1pl vǫxum 2pl vaxið
middle voice: vaxask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek vǫxumk 1pl vér vǫxumk 1sg ek vǫxumk 1pl vér vaximk
2sg þú vexk 2pl þér vaxizk 2sg þú vaxisk 2pl þér vaxizk
3sg hon vexk 3pl þau vaxask 3sg hon vaxisk 3pl þau vaxisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek óxumk 1pl vér óxumk 1sg ek œxumk 1pl vér œximk
2sg þú óxk 2pl þér óxuzk 2sg þú œxisk 2pl þér œxizk
3sg hon óxk 3pl þau óxusk 3sg hon œxisk 3pl þau œxisk
past participle n. vaxizk
imperative 2sg vaxk 1pl vǫxumk 2pl vaxizk

Related to auka VII, q.v. for cognates, and more immediately cognate with OE weaxan VI, ME waxen, MnE wax, Dutch wassen, German wachsen; variants include preterite indicative vóx, uxum, subjunctive yxa, vyxa.

loss of w

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

þvá VI “wash”

transitive (acc/dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek þvæ 1pl vér þvám 1sg ek þvá 1pl vér þváim
2sg þú þvær 2pl þér þváið 2sg þú þváir 2pl þér þváið
3sg hon þvær 3pl þau þvá 3sg hon þvái 3pl þau þvái
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek þó 1pl vér þógum 1sg ek þœga 1pl vér þœgim
2sg þú þótt 2pl þér þóguð 2sg þú þœgir 2pl þér þœgið
3sg hon þó 3pl þau þógu 3sg hon þœgi 3pl þau þœgi
preterite infinitive þógu
past participle f. þvegin m. þveginn n. þvegit
imperative 2sg þvá 1pl þvám 2pl þváið
middle voice: þvásk
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek þvámk 1pl vér þvámk 1sg ek þvámk 1pl vér þváimk
2sg þú þvæsk 2pl þér þváizk 2sg þú þváisk 2pl þér þváizk
3sg hon þvæsk 3pl þau þvásk 3sg hon þváisk 3pl þau þváisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek þógumk 1pl vér þógumk 1sg ek þœgumk 1pl vér þœgimk
2sg þú þózk 2pl þér þóguzk 2sg þú þœgisk 2pl þér þœgizk
3sg hon þósk 3pl þau þógusk 3sg hon þœgisk 3pl þau þœgisk
past participle n. þvegizk
imperative 2sg þvásk 1pl þvámk 2pl þváizk

Cognate with OE þwēan VI; preterite singular variant þvó, plural þvógum, subjunctive þvœga.

vowel lengthening  ·  loss of w  ·  consonant lengthening

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

© Paul Langeslag 2011, 2017