Paradigm Database Changelog
Strong verbs, based on Sean Crist's 2004
29 May 2011
- fixed the assignment of all class VI verbs to class IV by doing a case-sensitive replace of VI for IV in the range of class VI verbs
- to fix 2pl forms listed as 1pl, replaced
\1+2+pl\2 (204 matches) and
\1+2+pl\2 (204 matches?)
- removed all the commentary: replaced
#.*$ with "" (521 matches)
- replaced &o-hook; with ǫ (631 matches)
- replaced œ with œ (468x)
- corrected forms ending in v by replacing
\1 (38 matches)
- corrected forms ending in j by replacing
- corrected vr-clusters by replacing vr with r (28 matches)
- corrected vs-clusters by replacing vs with s (47)
- replaced jesk with jask (4x)
- replaced lll with ll
- replaced aa with a (50x)
- replaced jaisk with isk (6x) (affected verbs are hnyggva and víkva, pres subj middle sg and pl)
- replaced jǫu with ju (18x)
- replaced ǫu with au (27x)
- standardized (and corrected) víkva pp. from ykvinninn to vikinn
- replaced all jai with i (22x)
- replaced all js with s (37x)
- replaced all ji with i (182x)
- replaced vt with t (5x)
- removed all asterisks (132x)
- redefined liggja from "lie" to "lie, recline"
- redefined ljúga from "tell a lie" to "lie; fail to keep"
- replaced all jœ with ý (141x)
- replaced all jr with r (24x)
- replaced jer(\t) with r\1 (4x?)
- replaced je(\t) with \1 (2x?)
- replaced the remaining occurrences of je with e (20x)
- manually changed bark to barg (2x)
- changed all
^ble in the blanda preterite range to
- redefined bregða from move suddenly/violently to draw (a weapon)
- defined brenna (replaced "inf brinna" with "burn")
- replaced sz with z (13x)
- added in preterite singulars for búga manually
- changed preterite singulars for ljúga to the laug-type manually
- changed preterite stem vowel of falda from e to é
- changed preterite stem vowel of falla from e to é
- changed preterite stem vowel of halda from e to é
- replaced nnn with nn (10x)
- replaced the remaining consonant+nn with consonant+n by replacing
- redefined gjalda from "pay for" to "pay"
- redefined gjósa from "stream forth" to "gush forth"
- manually changed 2/3 pres subj sg forms of halda from heldsk/heldzk to helzk, pret to hélzk
- manually changed 2/3 pret ind sg forms from hetzk/hetsk to hézk
- changed the present tense singular indicative stem vowel of hjálpa from æ to e (this verb was originally hjalpa, hence a short i-mutated form as well)
24 June 2011
- manually changed sjá: replaced all -jæ- and -æ- except in pret. subj. with á; changed forms to pres. sé, sér, sér, sém/sjám, séð/sjáð, sé/sjá (subj. was ok I think); pret. 3sg sá; pret. pl. sám, sáð, sá; past ptc. sénn, sén, sét; middle sézk. Still don't trust this paradigm.
11 July 2011
- manually changed þvá: pres. ind. pl. þvám, [þváið,] þvá
22 July 2011
- replaced \nsh with \nsk and 'shaka' with 'skaka'
29 Oct 2012
- manually changed kløkkva, støkkva to coincide with forms of søkkva: removed -v- from pret. forms etc.
- replaced ssk with sk
- Replaced mk with msk in 1pl middle voice forms (following Noreen, against Sweet, Valfells:
- Manually changed preterite singular forms of míga (from mé, mét, mé to meig, meigt, meig, and likewise middle voice)
- Corrected rinna to the more common renna:
- Manually removed entry rída "twist, wind", since all dictionaries list it as "ríða" and therefore virtually identical with ríða "ride".
4 Nov 2012
- manually corrected 1sg pret.:
- róa: to rera from reri
- snúa: to snera from sneri
- sá: to sera from seri
- gróa: to grera from greri
- gnúa: to gnera from gneri
8 Nov 2012
- copied out and modified preterites of tyggva for gyggva
- corrected preterite 1/3sg of tyggva, gyggva to tǫgg and gǫgg for tǫgk and gǫgk
- added a preterite tense for bella
- added a preterite tense for hrjósa
- reintroduced comments, format
- manually changed skjálfa to skjalfa following Noreen §491, Fritzner, ONP
- manually removed -v- from preterite and past participial forms of slyngva (cv. kløkkva)
- manual overhaul of slá:
- corrected past participles from sleinn etc. to sleginn etc.
- removed superfluous -u/a- from forms like sláum
- corrected 2sg pret. to slótt from slót
- corrected pret. plur. and pret. subj. from slóum etc. to slógum etc.
- manually standardized smjúga pret. from smók to smaug
- manually corrected 23sg of spinna to spinnr from spinn (a lexical issue; see Noreen §531.2)
- redefined røkkva from "get dark" to "grow dark"
- redefined binda from "tie (up)" to "bind"
- redefined blanda from "mix (into)" to "blend, mix"
- redefined bíða from "wait for" to "wait"
- redefined drepa from "smite, kill" to "strike; kill"
9 Nov 2012
- manually standardized stíga pret. from sté(t) to steig(t) and middle voice stéumk etc. to steigumk etc.
- replaced all vu with u:
- replaced all vo with o:
- simplified all vzk to zk (4x)
- added a preterite tense for stúpa (which is only attested in the inf.)
10 Nov 2012
- changed pret. 13sg of svelga from svalk to svalg
- redefined svífa from "wander around" to "wander; turn; drift"
:g/wander around/s//wander; turn; drift/g
- changed pret. 13sg of syngva from sǫnk to sǫng
- changed 1pl of sá from sáum to sám (also subj; middle voice sg/pl) without positive evidence but see slá; Gordon §131
- standardized pret. of síga from sé to seig
- redefined síða from do magic to perform magic
:g/do magic/s//perform magic/g
- standardized pret. of súga from só to saug
- redefined troða from "step tread" to "tread"
- replaced rrr with rr (2x)
- corrected past participles (4 forms) of tyggva from tuginn etc. to tugginn etc.
- deleted second entry "vega" and subsume sense into first by replacing "move, lift" by "lift; weigh; fight" :g/move, lift/s//lift, weigh, fight/g
- redefined vella from seethe, undulate to boil
- deleted duplicate entry of víkva
- changed the past participles (4x) of þiggja from þaginn etc. to þeginn etc.
- standardized past ptc. of þryngva from þrungvinn etc. to þrunginn etc.
11 Nov 2012
- removed duplicate entries of þrífa, bíta, líta, ríða, rísta
- reduced all áu combinations except pres part in sá to á; reduced sáa to sá
- reduced 1 pres subj of þvá from þváa to þvá, and reduced most áu combinations in this verb to á except in pres part.
- reduced all áu combinations except pres part in fá to á; reduced fáa to fá
- reduced all áu combinations except pres part in flá to á; reduced fláa to flá
- reduced all áu combinations except pres part in klá to á; reduced kláa to klá
- corrected preterite and past participles of klá from klóum, kleinn to klógum, kleginn
- reduced pres. part. of fá, sá, sjá, þvá, flá, klá, slá from fáandi etc. to fándi etc. following Noreen §130, 539
- reduced remaining áu (by now only preterites like vá)
- completed adding basic refline per verb class with some more specific points
12 Nov 2012
- replaced aðu with ǫðu (3x)
- replaced afu with ǫfu (3x)
- replaced aku with ǫku (2x)
- replaced alu with ǫlu (2x)
- replaced amu with ǫmu (2x)
- replaced apu with ǫpu (1x)
- replaced aru with ǫru (2x)
- replaced asu with ǫsu (1x)
- replaced atu with ǫtu (4x)
- replaced akku with ǫkku (3x)
- replaced allu with ǫllu (5x)
- replaced ammu with ǫmmu (1x)
- replaced annu with ǫnnu (5x)
- replaced appu with ǫppu (2x)
- replaced arru with ǫrru (1x)
- replaced attu with ǫttu (6x)
- replaced all tzt with zt (7x)
- changed varzt > vart, sarzt > sart, stózt > stótt, rézt > rétt, reizt > reitt, seizt > seitt, skreizt > skreitt, sneizt > sneitt, bauzt > bautt, hnauzt > hnautt, hrauzt > hrautt, rauzt > rautt, sauzt > sautt, trazt > tratt, kvazt > kvatt, bazt > batt, hlózt > hlótt, ózt > ótt (Noreen §534.2b)
- removed duplicate of síða
- merged duplicate of hrjóta and redefined as "snore"
- replaced all dsk with zk (20x) (Noreen §534.2b)
- replaced all ðsk with zk (79x) (Noreen §534.2b)
- replaced all ðzk with zk (19x) (cf. Noreen §534.2b)
- replaced all dzk with zk (1x) (cf. Noreen §534.2b)
- reduced stsk-clusters to zk (16x)
- reduced stzk-clusters to zk (4x)
- reduced tzk-clusters to zk (35x)
:g/tzk/s//zk/g (marked with cf. 543.2b)
- reduced tsk-clusters to zk (128x)
:g/tsk/s//zk/g (same verbs as above)
13 Nov 2012
- Did some more manual work on sjá, but that's not done yet.
14 Nov 2012
- split sjá into an early paradigm séa and a later paradigm sjá
- active paradigm of séa now entirely accurate, and I am fairly confident of the middle voice paradigm, although only key forms are attested in dictionaries and online (sésk, sásk, pptc. sézk, subj. sæisk)
- active paradigm of sjá now entirely accurate, and I am fairly confident of the middle voice paradigm; attested forms include sjámk, sjásk, sásk, sæisk.
- manually corrected pret. of hnǫggva from hnǫgk to hnǫgg
16 Nov 2012
- reverted to plural middle voice form -mk rather than Noreen’s -msk :g/msk/s//mk/g
- improved séa, sjá
- changed 2sg pret ind from bjót to bjótt
17 Nov 2012
- redefined aka from "drive" to "drive (a vehicle); cart"
:g/\(^.*\taka+.*\t\@<=\)drive$/s//\1drive (a vehicle); cart/g
- introduced optional definition line for middle voice in format
- redefined ala from "give birth to" to "beget; bear; raise"
- defined alask "be born, grow up"
- changed ala 23sg pres ind from ell to elr
- defined aukask "procreate"
- redefined ausa from "draw/pour (water)" to "sprinkle, pour; scoop"
:g/draw\/pour (water)/s//sprinkle, pour; scoop/g
- redefined bella from "meet" to "hit; hurt"
- changed bella 23sg pres ind from bell to bell(r) (unattested forms, see Noreen §490 Anm. 1); NB this is currently only use of parentheses in the paradigm.
- defined berask as "move"
- standardized 2sg pret ind act of biðja from "batt" to "bazt" (Noreen §534.2c)
- corrected 13sg pret ind act of sitja from "satt" to "sat"
- corrected 1sg pret ind middle of sitja from sǫttumk to the hypothetical form sǫtumk
- corrected 23sg pret ind middle of sitja from satzk to sazk
19 Nov 2012
- corrected 2sg imp. of binda from bindr to bitt
- corrected 2sg imp and 1/3 sg middle voice forms of binda from binzk, banzk to bizk, bazk
- corrected preterite of bíða from beit to beið
- corrected 1/3sg pret. ind. middle voice from blétzk to blézk
20 Nov 2012
- redefined blífa from "fart" to "stay; become"
23 Nov 2012
- corrected middle voice forms of detta from detzk, datzk to dezk, dazk (5 occurrences)
- added first hyperlinks to DOE, OED, Lewis and Short, Bosworth and Toller, MED
- corrected 2sg pret. ind. of deyja from dót to dótt
- corrected 2sg pret. ind. of draga from drót to drótt
- simplified geminate clusters kksk, kkzk in middle voice according to Noreen §543.2d. Other clusters remain to be done, but sources retain 2sg pret ind act -kkt at least half the time and llsk virtually unanimously, despite Noreen §284, i.e. they follow Konráð Gíslason against Jón Þorkelsson 1901.
- removed dúfa (weak verb)
- redefined falda from "put on a head-covering" to "cover one’s head"
:g/put\ on\ a\ head-covering/s//cover one’s head/g
- corrected 2sg pret ind act of falda from féldt to félzt
- corrected 23sg pres ind act of falla from fell to fellr (Noreen §531.2)
- corrected fáask to fásk, and reduced remaining forms of áa to á as well: kláask, sáa, fláask
- defined fásk as "be found, exist, occur"
25 Nov 2012
- redefined "feta" from "proceed" to "find one’s way"
:g/\(^.*\tfeta.*\t\)\@<=proceed/s//find one’s way/g
- changed 23sg pres ind act of fela from "fell" to "felr" (cf. Noreen §531.2, but taking into account that "fell" would coincide with falla pret).
- changed 23sg pres ind act of finna from "finn" to "finnr" (cf. Noreen §531.2).
26 Nov 2012
- redefined sjóða from "shoot" to "boil, cook"
- added item "vinda"
- redefined fjúka from "fly off/around" to "drift"
- standardized pret ind act of fljúga from fló to flaug (six occurrences)
- redefined fregna from "ask" to "ask; learn"
- brought the pret of frjósa into unison by changing the plurals and subjunctives to frusum etc.
28 Nov 2012
- redefined gala from "chant, cry out" to "crow, cry; sing"
:g/\(^.*\tgala.*\t\)\@<=chant,\ cry\ out/s//crow, cry; sing/g
- redefined ganga from "go" to "go, walk"
- corrected 2sg imp of ganga from gang to gakk
- redefined geyja from "bark" to "bark; verbally abuse"
:g/\(^.*\tgeyja.*\t\)\@<=bark/s//bark; verbally abuse/g
- shortened pret pl, pret mid óu to ó in deyja, geyja; not yet done in other verbs
- redefined gjalla from "cry out" to "yell, shriek"
:g/\(^.*\tgjalla.*\t\)\@<=cry out/s//yell, shriek/g
- changed 23sg pres ind act of gjalla from gell to gellr (cf. Noreen §531.2 with corpus occurrences)
30 Nov 2012
- redefined gnesta from "crack (loudly)" to "crack"
- resolved iu-combinations into u. These were a relic of Sean’s pret 1sg forms "reri" etc. for the older "rera" etc. combined with the middle voice ending, affecting sá, róa, gróa, snúa, gnúa
1 Dec 2012
- added a line in the format
freq\t[infinitive]+[common|rare|attested|not attested] to reflect on the frequency of a lexical item
- added (for now) a line in the format
midfreq\t[infinitive]+[common|rare|attested|not attested] to reflect on the existence and frequency of an item's middle voice
- redefined gróa from "grow, become green" to "grow, recover"
:g/\(^.*\tgróa.*\t\)\@<=grow,\ become green/s//grow, recover/g
- reclassified gyggva from class II to class III
- corrected hanga pres ind act sg (hanga pres conjugates weak)
- corrected hanga pret from hekk* to hékk, heng to héng*
2 Dec 2012
- corrected hanga past ptc from henginn to hanginn
- redefined heita from "call, command" to "call; be called; promise"
:g/\(^.*\theita.*\t\)\@<=call,\ command/s//call; be called; promise/g
- corrected hjálpa pres ind sg forms from hj* to h*
- changed lexical form of hjálpa to hjalpa
- redefined hlaupa from "leap" to "jump; run"
- changed pret subj vowel of hlaupa from ý to y
- redefined hljóta from "get by lot" to "be assigned by lot"
:g/\(^.*\thljóta.*\t\)\@<=get\ by\ lot/s//be assigned by lot/g
- corrected 2sg pret ind act of hlæja from hlót to hlótt (Noreen §534.2a)
7 Dec 2012
- standardized pret. of hníga from hné to hneig
- redefined hnjóða from "hammer (metal), rivet" to "beat, hammer; clinch"
:g/\(^.*\thnjóða.*\t\)\@<=hammer\ (metal),\ rivet/s//beat, hammer; clinch/g
- corrected preterite plural, subjunctive of hnjósa from hnurum to hnusum (cf. frjósa and see Heggstad)
- removed duplicate form hnǫggva/hnǫggja (left -va forms intact)
- corrected lexical form hnǫggva to hnøggva
- redefined hnøggva from "stagger, rob" to "strike; deprive; stumble"
:g/\(^.*\thnøggva.*\t\)\@<=stagger,\ rob/s//strike; deprive; stumble/g
- added preterites to hnøggva paradigm
- reclassified hnøggva from class II to class III
- redefined hrinda from "shove" to "push, throw; kick"
:g/\(^.*\thrinda.*\t\)\@<=shove/s//push, throw; kick/g
- simplified hratzk to hrazk (hrinda)
- redefined hrjóða from "empty" to "empty, strip"
- removed duplicate of hrína, redefined as "squeal, neigh; be fulfilled" (from "touch" and "oink, neigh")
8 Dec 2012
- redefined hrøkkva from "fall back" to "curl; recoil; retreat"
:g/\(^.*\thrøkkva.*\t\)\@<=fall\ back/s//curl; recoil; retreat/g
- removed hváta (weak)
- redefined hvína from "whistle, rush" to "swish, rush"
- redefined hǫggva from "chop, hew" to "strike, hew"
- corrected pret ind 2sg from hjót to hjótt
- redefined kala from "freeze" to "cool, freeze"
- redefined kefja from "press down, submerge" to "dip, submerge"
redefined kljúfa from "split" to "cleave"- corrected preterite plural, subjunctive of kjósa from kurum to kusum (cf. frjósa, hnjósa and see Heggstad)
- corrected pret ind 2sg of klá from klót to klótt
- corrected pret ind 2sg of flá from flót to flótt
- corrected pret ind 2sg of þvá from þót to þótt
- corrected pret ind 2sg of geyja from gót to gótt
- manually corrected pret subj act of klá by inserting g (klœa -> klœga etc)
- corrected pret ind middle voice 1sg of draga from dróumk to drógumk
- corrected pret ind middle voice 1sg of flá from flóumk to flógumk
- corrected pret ind middle voice 1sg of þvá from þóumk to þógumk
- corrected pret ind middle voice 1sg of hǫggva from hjóumk to hjoggumk
- corrected pret ind middle voice 1sg of búa from bjóumk to bjoggumk
- reduced remaining óu-combinations (gróa, róa) to ó
9 Dec 2012
- corrected all pret ind mid 1sg forms to reflect the plural vowel (see Noreen §542.1, Iversen §141.4, and especially Sweet-Hall p. 23); only for most class VI and VII verbs were these already identical. Now all 1sg and 1pl pret ind mid forms are identical for as long as I decide to leave the endings identical (pl umk not umsk).
- corrected búga pret ind mid 1sg, which was baugsk, to bugumk
- corrected pres ind mid 1pl and mid imp 1pl of fá from fásk to fámk
- corrected pres ind mid 1pl and mid imp 1pl of sá from sásk to sámk
- corrected pres ind mid 1pl and mid imp 1pl of flá from flásk to flámk
- corrected pres ind mid 1pl and mid imp 1pl of klá from klásk to klámk
- corrected pres ind mid 1pl and mid imp 1pl of slá from slásk to slámk
- corrected pres ind mid 1pl and mid imp 1pl of þvá from þvásk to þvámk
- removed búga (exists only as weak verb buga)
- added item auða
- added item bauta
10 Dec 2012
- redefined kljúfa from "split" to "cleave"
- redefined kløkkva from "get soft" to "grow soft, be touched; lament"
- corrected koma 23sg pres ind mid from køsk to kømsk, 3sg pret and imperative kosk to komsk
- redefined kretta from "murmur" to "grumble"
- redefined krjúpa from "crawl" to "crawl; crouch, kneel"
- redefined leika from "move suddenly, play" to "play; rock; mock; swindle; attack"
- redefined lesa from "gather" to "gather; read; gossip"
- corrected ljósta pret ind act 2sg from "lauzt" to "laust"
- redefined lúka from "finish, end, open/close" to "shut; end, complete; pay"
- redefined lúta from "bow" to "bow; plunge; yield"
:g/\(^.*\tlúta.*\t\)\@<=bow/s//bow; plunge; yield/g
12 Dec 2012
- redefined meta from "estimate" to "value, put a price on sth"
:g/\(^.*\tmeta.*\t\)\@<=estimate/s//value, put a price on sth/g
- redefined míga from "piss" to "urinate"
- corrected middle forms of nema "nesk" (x3), "nask" to "nemsk", "namsk"
- redefined njóta from "enjoy, use" to "use; enjoy"
:g/\(^.*\tnjóta.*\t\)\@<=enjoy,\ use/s//use; enjoy/g
13 Dec 2012
- redefined ráða from "advise, plan" to "advise; plan; resolve; interpret"
:g/\(^.*\tráða.*\t\)\@<=advise,\ plan/s//advise; plan; resolve; interpret/g
- redefined rísta from "engrave, write" to "carve"
15 Dec 2012
- redefined rjóða from "redden" to "redden, smear with blood"
- redefined rjúka from "smoke" to "emit smoke or vapor; be flung"
- yet another set of séa/sjá fixes
- redefined serða from "have unnatural sex" to "have intercourse with; sodomize"
- redefined síga from "sink" to "sink, slide down"
- redefined skafa from "scrape" to "scrape; shave, plane"
- redefined skepja from "make, create" to "form, make; determine, fix; bring about"
- replaced clusters of jt and jz with t and z (skepja)
- removed -j- from preterite forms of skepja
- redefined skera from "cut" to "cut; slaughter; determine"
- redefined skjalla from "resound" to "clatter, slam"
16 Dec 2012
- redefined skjóta from "shoot" to "shoot, cast; shove; appeal"
- redefined skreppa from "slip (out)" to "slip, lose hold; withdraw"
- redefined skríða from "stride, glide forward" to "crawl, glide; ski"
- redefined skína from "shine" to "shine; gleam; bleach"
- corrected pres subj 2sg of slá from "slár" to "sláir"
- corrected pres subj 1pl of slá from "slám" to "sláim"
- redefined sleppa from "slide" to "slide, slip; escape; fail"
- redefined slíta from "tear, break" to "tear; wear out; end, conclude"
- changed slyngva to slyngja
- redefined slyngja from "throw" to "hurl; set up; strike a deal"
- redefined smjúga from "crawl through" to "crawl (through a confined space)"
- redefined snerta from "touch" to "touch; border; concern; discuss"
:g/\(^.*\tsnerta.*\t\)\@<=touch/s//touch; border; concern; discuss/g
- redefined sníða from "cut" to "cut; deprive"
- redefined snúa from "twist, turn" to "turn; make one’s way; change; twist"
17 Dec 2012
- corrected past ptc of spinna from "spunnininn" etc. to "spunninn" etc. (4x)
- redefined spinna from "spin" to "spin (into a thread)"
:g/\(^.*\tspinna.*\t\)\@<=spin/s//spin (into a thread)/g
- changed item sporna into sperna
- redefined sperna from "kick, trample" to "kick; tread, trample"
- redefined spretta from "jump" to "jump, spring"
- substituted "zk" for "tzk", affecting bjótzk, kretzk, kratzk, spretzk, spratzk and similar (11x)
- substituted "zk" for "tsk, affecting beytsk, bjótsk (3x)
- redefined springa from "burst" to "jump, spring; burst; be overcome"
:g/\(^.*\tspringa.*\t\)\@<=burst/s//jump, spring; burst; be overcome/g
- redefined standa from "stand" to "stand; remain; result; be headed; extend; encounter"
:g/\(^.*\tstanda.*\t\)\@<=stand/s//stand; remain; result; be headed; extend; encounter/g
- corrected 2sg imperative of standa from "stand" to "statt", middle "stazk" (?)
- redefined stinga from "stab" to "stick, stab"
- redefined stíga from "step" to "step; ascend; descend"
- redefined strjúka from "stroke, rub" to "stroke, rub; wipe; beat, flog; run, escape"
18 Dec 2012
- removed item stúpa, which must be presumed weak (occurs once in inf., but cf. OE stūpian)
- redefined støkkva from "spring" to "spring; jump; flee; come apart; be sprinkled"
:g/\(^.*\tstøkkva.*\t\)\@<=spring/s//spring; jump; flee; come apart; be sprinkled/g
- redefined súpa from "drink" to "drink; eat liquid food"
- redefined svelga from "swallow" to "swallow; swallow up; consume"
- redefined fela from "hide" to "hide, bury; entrust"
- redefined svelta from "die" to "die; starve"
- replaced all -vy- with -y- (affects svelta, velta; see Noreen §235.1a)
- redefined velta from "roll, tumble" to "roll; change; turn out"
19 Dec 2012
- redefined vella from "boil" to "boil; well up"
- introduced a line in the format
- redefined verða from "become" to "become; happen, appear; must; perish"
- redefined verpa from "throw" to "throw; build; cover; lay eggs"
- corrected middle voice forms of svima from "svisk" and "svask" to "svimsk" and "svamsk" (4x)
- corrected middle voice forms of svimma from "svimsk" and "svamsk" to "svimmsk" and "svammsk" (4x)
- redefined svíða from "burn" to "singe, burn"
- changed item svíkva to svíkja
- changed item syngva to syngja
- redefined syngja from "sing" to "sing; play, produce sound"
- redefined taka from "take" to "take; choose, resolve; begin; reach, touch; receive"
:g/\(^.*\ttaka.*\t\)\@<=take/s//take; choose, resolve; begin; reach, touch; receive/g
- redefined troða from "tread" to "tread; stuff"
20 Dec 2012
- changed item tyggva to tyggja
- reclassified tyggva from class II to class III
- redefined vaða from "wade (through)" to "wade; storm; move"
- redefined vaxa from "grow" to "grow; grow up; increase; come about"
:g/\(^.*\tvaxa.*\t\)\@<=grow/s//grow; grow up; increase; come about/g
- reduced "vexsk", "vaxsk", and "óxsk/óxzk" to "vexk", "vaxk", and "óxk"; this is rather academic, as I don’t think vaxa is attested in middle voice.
- redefined vega from "lift, weigh, fight" to "lift; carry; weigh; swing; attack; kill"
- redefined vinna from "do, accomplish" to "do, accomplish; serve, benefit; cultivate; obtain"
- redefined víkja from "give away" to "move, turn; extend; recede"
21 Dec 2012
- redefined þiggja from "accept" to "receive; accept; be lodged"
:g/\(^.*\tþiggja.*\t\)\@<=accept/s//receive; accept; be lodged/g
- redefined þjóta from "resound, rush" to "swish, rush; blow a wind instrument"
- redefined þrjóta from "cease, fail" to "come to an end, fail; run out, fatigue";
:g/\(^.*\tþrjóta.*\t\)\@<=cease, fail/s//come to an end; run out, fail; fatigue/g
- redefined þryngva from "squeeze" to "press, squeeze"
- redefined þverra from "disappear" to "diminish, wane"
- reduced geminate -rr- in middle voice of þverra in accordance with Noreen §§284, 543.2d:
- reduced geminate -rr- in 2sg pret act of þverra:
- completed adding commentline, refline, freqline, midfreqline, and transline to all items
- completed first complete round of proofreading
- redefined drífa from "drive" to "drive; blow; be driven, blown; spray; move, go"
:g/\(^.*\tdrífa.*\t\)\@<=drive/s//drive; blow; be driven, blown; spray; move, go/g
- removed item blífa (15th-century loan)
3 Jan 2013
- redefined auka from "increase" to "increase, exaggerate; exceed"
:g/\(^.*\tauka.*\t\)\@<=increase/s//increase, exaggerate; exceed/g
- redefined bera from "carry, bear" to "carry, bear, bring; appear; behave"
:g/\(^.*\tbera.*\t\)\@<=carry,\ bear/s//carry, bear, bring; appear; behave/g
- redefined biðja from "ask for" to "ask, beg"
:g/\(^.*\tbiðja.*\t\)\@<=ask\ for/s//ask, beg/g
- redefined bíða from "wait" to "wait, await; undergo, suffer; receive, experience; exist"
:g/\(^.*\tbíða.*\t\)\@<=wait/s//wait, await; undergo, suffer; receive, experience; exist/g
- redefined bíta from "bite" to "bite, eat; cut, harm"
:g/\(^.*\tbíta.*\t\)\@<=bite/s//bite, eat; cut, harm/g
- redefined bjarga from "protect, save" to "help, protect; save"
- redefined bjóða from "offer, command" to "offer; invite; command; proclaim"
- redefined blása from "blow" to "blow; breathe, pant; inflate; smelt"
:g/\(^.*\tblása.*\t\)\@<=blow/s//blow; breathe, pant; inflate; smelt/g
- redefined blíkja from "shine" to "gleam"
- reconstructed past participles for blíkja
- redefined blóta from "sacrifice" to "sacrifice; worship; curse, damn"
:g/\(^.*\tblóta.*\t\)\@<=sacrifice/s//sacrifice; worship; curse, damn/g
4 Jan 2013
- redefined bregða from "draw (a weapon)" to "draw (a weapon); swing, reposition rapidly; alter; give up, break off"
:g/\(^.*\tbregða.*\t\)\@<=draw\ (a\ weapon)/s//draw (a weapon); swing, reposition rapidly; alter; give up, break off/g
- redefined brenna from "burn" to "burn; be burned"
:g/\(^.*\tbrenna.*\t\)\@<=burn/s//burn; be burned/g
- redefined bresta from "burst" to "burst; resound; break out; fail, fall short"
:g/\(^.*\tbresta.*\t\)\@<=burst/s//burst; resound; break out; fail, fall short/g
- redefined brjóta from "break" to "break; break in; clear; demolish; breach, violate; unpack"
:g/\(^.*\tbrjóta.*\t\)\@<=break/s//break; break in; clear; demolish; breach, violate; unpack/g
- redefined búa from "dwell" to "dwell; prepare; decorate; settle; govern; behave; stay, be"
:g/\(^.*\tbúa.*\t\)\@<=dwell/s//dwell; prepare; decorate; settle; govern; behave; stay, be/g
- redefined deyja from "fall (dead)" to "fall (dead); go numb"
- redefined draga from "haul, drag" to "haul, drag; inhale; gain, amass; extend"
:g/\(^.* \tdraga.*\t\)\@<=haul, drag/s//haul, drag; inhale; gain, amass; extend/g
- redefined drjúpa from "drip" to "drip; leak"
- redefined eta from "eat" to "eat; consume, use up; afflict"
:g/\(^.*\teta.*\t\)\@<=eat/s//eat; consume, use up; afflict/g
- redefined falla from "fall" to "fall; die; flow; fail; affect; suit, be appropriate"
:g/\(^.*\tfalla.*\t\)\@<=fall/s//fall; die; flow; fail; affect; suit, be appropriate/g
- redefined fara from "go, travel" to "go; travel; die"
:g/\(^.*\tfara.*\t\)\@<=go,\ travel/s//go; travel; die/g
- redefined fá from "take" to "take, seize, catch; get, receive; accomplish"
:g/\(^.*\tfá.*\t\)\@<=take/s//take, seize, catch; get, receive; accomplish/g
- redefined feta from "find one’s way" to "find one’s way; be able"
- redefined finna from "find" to "(seek to) find; notice; invent, discover; meet; pay"
:g/\(^.*\tfinna.*\t\)\@<=find/s//(seek to) find; notice; invent, discover; meet; pay/g
- redefined fjúka from "drift" to "drift, be driven/blown"
:g/\(^.*\tfjúka.*\t\)\@<=drift/s//drift, be driven\/blown/g
- redefined fljóta from "float" to "float; flow; be full of (esp. a liquid); save oneself"
:g/\(^.*\tfljóta.*\t\)\@<=float/s//float; flow; be full of (esp. a liquid); save oneself/g
- redefined ganga from "go, walk" to "go, walk; graze; end, die; succeed; diminish"
:g/\(^.*\tganga.*\t\)\@<=go, walk/s//go, walk; graze; end, die; succeed; diminish/g
- redefined gefa from "give" to "give; pay"
- redefined geta from "get" to "get, obtain; say; think, suspect; give birth"
:g/\(^.*\tgeta.*\t\)\@<=get/s//get, obtain; say; think, suspect; give birth/g
- redefined gjalda from "pay" to "pay; give back; suffer; cost"
:g/\(^.*\tgjalda.*\t\)\@<=pay/s//pay; give back; suffer; cost/g
- redefined gjósa from "gush forth" to "gush, flare, rise"
- redefined gnesta from "crack" to "clash, crack, thump"
:g/\(^.*\tgnesta.*\t\)\@<=crack/s//clash, crack, thump/g
- redefined grafa from "dig, engrave" to "dig; dig up; bury; study; carve"
:g/\(^.*\tgrafa.*\t\)\@<=dig,\ engrave/s//dig; dig up; bury; study; carve/g
- redefined grípa from "grasp" to "grasp; obtain; seduce; take by force; touch (on)"
:g/\(^.*\tgrípa.*\t\)\@<=grasp/s//grasp; obtain; seduce; take by force; touch (on)/g
- redefined halda from "hold" to "hold, keep; hold prisoner; stop, hinder; withhold; steer"
:g/\(^.*\thalda.*\t\)\@<=hold/s//hold, keep; hold prisoner; stop, hinder; withhold; steer/g
- redefined hefja from "lift, carry" to "lift (up); begin; bring up in conversation; baptize"
:g/\(^.*\thefja.*\t\)\@<=lift,\ carry/s//lift (up); begin; bring up in conversation; baptize/g
- redefined hjalpa from "help" to "help; save"
- redefined hlaða from "load" to "load; pile; build; fell, kill"
:g/\(^.*\thlaða.*\t\)\@<=load/s//load; pile; build; fell, kill/g
- redefined hlaupa from "jump; run" to "jump; run; flee; glide, flow"
:g/\(^.*\thlaupa.*\t\)\@<=jump;\ run/s//jump; run; flee; glide, flow/g
- redefined hljóta from "be assigned by lot" to "be assigned by lot, get; undergo; must"
:g/be\ assigned\ by\ lot/s//be assigned by lot, get; undergo; must/g
- redefined hlæja from "laugh" to "laugh; ridicule"
- redefined hníga from "sink" to "bow; sink; be defeated; die; head, turn"
:g/\(^.*\thníga.*\t\)\@<=sink/s//bow; sink; be defeated; die; head, turn/g
- redefined hnjósa from "sneeze" to "sneeze; snort in disapproval"
:g/\(^.*\thnjósa.*\t\)\@<=sneeze/s//sneeze; snort in disapproval/g
- reconstructed a past participle for hnjósa
5 Jan 2013
- redefined hrinda from "push, throw; kick" to "push, throw; chase; overthrow; annul"
- redefined hrífa from "grasp" to "grasp; scratch"
- redefined hrjóða from "emty; strip" to "clear, strip; drive out; cover"
:g/\(^.*\thrjóða.*\t\)\@<=empty;\ strip/s//clear, strip; drive out; cover, embellish/g
- redefined hrjóta from "snore" to "growl, grunt; snore; fall, be flung"
- redefined hverfa from "turn, move" to "turn; move; go; surround; disappear"
:g/\(^.*\thverfa.*\t\)\@<=turn,\ move/s//turn; move; go; surround; disappear/g
- redefined hǫggva from "strike, hew" to "strike, hew; fell; decapitate, kill; slaugher; bite"
- redefined kjósa from "choose" to "choose, elect; wish"
:g/\(^.*\tkjósa.*\t\)\@<=choose/s//choose, elect; wish/g
- redefined klá from "scratch" to "scratch, rub"
- redefined koma from "come" to "come; reach, happen; lead, bring"
:g/\(^.*\tkoma.*\t\)\@<=come/s//come; reach, happen; lead, bring/g
- redefined kveða from "say" to "say; speak; recite, sing; pronounce; produce sound; scream"
:g/\(^.*\tkveða.*\t\)\@<=say/s//say; speak; recite, sing; pronounce; produce sound; scream/g
- redefined láta from "let" to "let, allow; leave, abandon; lose, give up; order, cause; behave; pretend; respond (with approval or disapproval)"
:g/\(^.*\tláta.*\t\)\@<=let/s//let, allow; leave, abandon; lose, give up; order, cause; behave; pretend; respond (with approval or disapproval)/g
- redefined líta from "look" to "look, see; consider"
:g/\(^.*\tlíta.*\t\)\@<=look/s//look, see; consider/g
- redefined ljósta from "strike" to "strike, hit; flare, rise suddenly; break up"
:g/\(^.*\tljósta.*\t\)\@<=strike/s//strike, hit; flare, rise suddenly; break up/g
- redefined nema from "take" to "take; touch, hit; take hold; rob; hear, learn; study; memorize"
:g/\(^.*\tnema.*\t\)\@<=take/s//take; touch, hit; take hold; rob; hear, learn; study; memorize/g
- redefined renna from "run" to "run; flow; rise; extend; be in heat"
:g/\(^.*\trenna.*\t\)\@<=run/s//run; flow; rise; extend; be in heat/g
- redefined ríða from "ride" to "ride; sway; rise; stagger; haunt; wind, tie; smear"
:g/\(^.*\tríða.*\t\)\@<=ride/s//ride; sway; rise; stagger; haunt; wind, tie; smear/g
- redefined rífa from "tear" to "tear, pluck; rob"
:g/\(^.*\trífa.*\t\)\@<=tear/s//tear, pluck; rob/g
- redefined rísa from "rise" to "rise; arise, begin"
:g/\(^.*\trísa.*\t\)\@<=rise/s//rise; arise, begin/g
- redefined rísta from "carve" to "carve, cut; cut open; tear"
:g/\(^.*\trísta.*\t\)\@<=carve/s//carve, cut; cut open; tear/g
- redefined rjúfa from "tear" to "tear; breach, violate; reveal"
:g/\(^.*\trjúfa.*\t\)\@<=tear/s//tear; breach, violate; reveal/g
- redefined róa from "row" to "row; rock"
- redefined sá from "sow" to "sow; scatter"
- redefined séa and sjá from "see" to "see; look; realize, understand; meet; look after"
:g/\(^.*\tsjá.*\t\)\@<=see/s//see; look; realize, understand; meet; look after/g
:g/\(^.*\tséa.*\t\)\@<=see/s//see; look; realize, understand; meet; look after/g
- redefined sitja from "sit" to "sit; dwell, stay; keep still; let slip; tolerate; deny access"
:g/\(^.*\tsitja.*\t\)\@<=sit/s//sit; dwell, stay; keep still; let slip; tolerate; deny access/g
- redefined sjóða from "boil, cook" to "boil, cook; forge; ponder"
:g/\(^.*\tsjóða.*\t\)\@<=boil,\ cook/s//boil, cook; forge; ponder/g
6 Jan 2013
7 Jan 2013
- added item ríta
- added item dríta
- added item hníta
- added item físa
- added item hváta
- added item hnafa
- added item trega
1 Feb 2013
- added a first rough draft of vera
Preterite-present verbs, from scratch
1 Feb 2013
- Input rough first drafts of the ten preterite-present verbs and valda; not yet merged with the central database:
2 Feb 2013
- Merged pret-pres and mixed verbs with the central database; still in need of proofreading and cleaning up.
7 Feb 2013
- Changed all pret-pres 2sg pret ind middle endings from -izk to -isk.
8 Feb 2013
- Changed 3pl pres ind middle endings from -ask to -usk where the active ending is -u.
- Introduced a new variable $infMiddle, which is identical with $PresIndPl3middle unless the latter contains -usk.
- Corrected 1sg pret ind olli to olla.
12 Feb 2013
- Completed pret-pres and mixed proofreading and tweaks.
Weak verbs, based on Sean Crist's 2004
2 Feb 2013
- removed single quotes from definitions
&o-hook; with "ǫ"
œ with "œ"
- turned lexical middle voice into active
- corrected forms ending in v
- corrected vs-clusters
- corrected ǫu-clusters
- corrected vu-clusters
- corrected ii-clusters
- replaced dsk with zk
:g/dsk/s//zk/g (4x, not sure if all correct)
- replaced ðsk with zk
- replaced stsk with zk
- replaced tsk with zk
- simplified geminate clusters kksk to ksk
+verb+weak into the descriptorline
3 Feb 2013
- begun classifying weak verbs with replacement strings like
- removed duplicate fœða
- removed duplicate leita
- removed duplicate virða
- removed item byggva (duplicates byggja)
13 Feb 2013
- removed duplicate (but empty) entry of hyggja
- introduced new line in format
- removed duplicate entry of skilja
- removed duplicate entry of spyrja
- removed duplicate entry of kenna
- removed duplicate entry of reiða
15 Feb 2013
- fixed first series of past participles by replacing "ddrinn" with "ddr", "ddrin" with "dd", "ddrit" with "tt", "ddrizk" with "zk"
- manually corrected past participles of gøra (4x)
- corrected past participles by replacing "rinn\t" with "r\t", etc.
- corrected preterite plural -imk to -umk:
- corrected preterite plural -izk to -uzk:
- corrected preterite plural -isk to -usk:
- manually corrected past participles of berja
- added in a 2pl middle voice imperative at the parsing stage
- removed duplicate item dvelja
- Input first draft of third-conjugation weak verbs:
16 Feb 2013
- Fixed past participles of elda
- Provisionally modified some definitions
- Changed the preferred stem-final consonant in dvelja, dynja, dreyma, dœma, elda from ð to d
- Modified several past participles; most notably, split forms of the masc/fem and the supine/neuter where this distinction is common (berja, dvelja, lifa)
- Fixed past participles of enda
- removed various intrusive rs ("giptrisk", "kysstrisk", "lyptrisk", "lýstrisk", "reistrisk", "ræstrisk", "skemmtrisk", "skiptrizk", "sveltrisk", "væntrisk", "þeystrisk", "þyrstrisk", "mæltrisk", "spenntrisk", "stilltrisk", "véltrisk", "festrisk")
Not yet merged into main database.
17 Feb 2013
- Inserted -j- before a/u in fylgja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in telgja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in kneikja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in merkja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in vekja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in velja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in verja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in þekja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in þreyja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in þylja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in æja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in flýja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in frýja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in selja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in setja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in vefja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in veðja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in telja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in spyrja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in skilja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in leggja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in hyggja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in glepja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in flytja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in etja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in dynja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in dýja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in berja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in rekkja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in sveigja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in vígja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in vægja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in byggja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in lengja (Gordon §139)
- Inserted -j- before a/u in lægja (Gordon §139)
- changed the preterite stem of merkja from merkð- to merkt-
- changed the participles of fýsa from "fýsinn" etc. to "fýstr" etc.
- changed the imperative of fýsa from "fýssk" to "fýsk"
18 Feb 2013
- Changed the dental suffix in glepja, hleypa, keppa, kippa, kneikja, rekkja from ð to t
- Changed the dental suffix in glíma, lengja, skilja from ð to d
- Manually corrected past participles of glepja from "glapinn" etc. to "glaptr" etc.
- tweaked participles of heita from "heittr" to "heitr"
- Corrected paticiples of klæða
- changed "kysssk" to "kyssk"
- Corrected preterite stem of leita from "leitt-" to "leitað-"
- simplified "lýssk" to "lýsk"
- simplified "reissk" to "reisk"
19 Feb 2013
- Corrected past participles of sætta from "sæinn" etc. to "sættr" etc.
20 Feb 2013
- Corrected fem. past participle of telja from "tald" to "tǫld".
- Corrected pret. stem of veðja from "vadd-" to "veðjað-"
- Changed default participial form of vefja from "vafðr" to "vafiðr"
- Changed past participle middle voice of véla from "véltizk" to "vélzk"
21 Feb 2013
- Changed default preterite stem of velja from "valð-" to "vald-"
- Changed default participial form of velja to "valiðr"
29 May 2014
- Added "pierce" to sense of smjúga
26 Apr 2016
- Redefined virða as “hold in esteem; value (at); heed”
- Drafted first middle voice definition for virða
- Redefined vægja as “yield, give way; spare; limit”
27 Apr 2016
- Substituted -kt- for -kð- (þekja)
- Removed alternate participial forms of þekja from source, noted in commentary line instead
- Redefined þeysa as “send forth; rush, storm”
- Simplified middle voice imperative “þeyssk” to “þeysk”
- Redefined þreyja as “yearn, pine; endure”
- Redefined þylja as “recite, chant, mutter”
- Redefined dvelja as “delay, defer; remain”
- Substituted ld for lð in preterite forms of þylja (cf. dvelja etc. at 16 Feb 2013)
- Removed alternate participial forms of þylja from source
- Redefined þyrsta as “be thirsty”
- Redefined æja as “rest; feed”
- Redefined œpa as “shout, shriek”
- Substituted pt for pð in œpa preterites and participles
29 April 2016
- u-mutated thematic vowel in all class 2 weak verbs, and class 3 where applicable:
:g/^\(\w*ǫ\w*\)a/s//\1u/g (168 hits)
- changed játǫðu, várǫðu and similar forms of these verbs to játuðu, váruðu:
:g/^\(\w*á\w*\)ǫ/s//\1u/g (16 hits)
30 April 2016
- u-mutated feminine past participle forms across the a-stems:
:g/að\(\s.*pp+fem\)/s//uð\1/g (66 hits)
- corrected spelling of u-mutation in unaccented syllables across a-stems from ǫ to u:
:g/ǫðu/s//uðu/g (216 hits)
- removed duplicate entry of hata
- u-mutated remaining feminine past participles (i.e. in class 3):
:g/^\(\w*\)a\(.*pp+fem\)/s//\1ǫ\2/g (15 hits; do check, if possible, that these are now all correct)
- added intrusive -j- to eggja paradigm:
:g/^\(egg\)\([au]\)/s//\1j\2/g (69 hits)
- u-mutated remaining -aðu- sequences:
:g/aðu/s//uðu/g (49 hits)
- corrected headword form soððla to sǫðla:
- corrected söðla stems from soðð- to sǫð-:
:g/^soðð/s//sǫð/g (32 hits after the foregoing)
- corrected headword form stoððva to stǫðva:
- corrected stöðva stems from stoðð- to stǫð-:
:g/^stoðð/s//stǫð/g (32 hits after the foregoing)
- (re?)added -v- to forms hitherto stǫðu- (9 hits)
- added intrusive -j- to synja paradigm:
:g/^\(syn\)\([au]\)/s//\1j\2/g (69 hits)
- added intrusive -j- to syfja paradigm:
:g/^\(syf\)\([au]\)/s//\1j\2/g (69 hits)
2 May 2016
- Corrected preterites of loða from loðð- to lodd- (N§2381a)
- i-mutated pret. subj. of vaka:
- i-mutated pret. subj. of una:
- i-mutated pret. subj. of duga:
- i-mutated pret. subj. of þola:
- i-mutated pret. subj. of þora:
- i-mutated pret. subj. of horfa:
- i-mutated pret. subj. of loða:
:g/^lo\(.*\tloða+.*pret+subj\)/s//lø\1/g (could not verify)
- i-mutated pret. subj. of brosa:
:g/^bro\(.*\tbrosa+.*pret+subj\)/s//brø\1/g (could not verify)
- i-mutated pret. subj. of skolla:
- un-i-mutated pret. ind. of sama:
- i-mutated pret. subj. of spara:
- i-mutated pret. subj. of segja:
:g/^sa\(.*\tsegja+.*pret+subj\)/s//se\1/g (+ manual 1pl)
- i-mutated pret. subj. of þegja:
:g/^þa\(.*\tþegja+.*pret+subj\)/s//þe\1/g (+ manual 1pl)
- i-mutated pret. subj. of gá:
- i-mutated pret. subj. of ná:
5 May 2016
- Manually i-mutated pret. subj. 2pl of vaka from “vaktið” to “vektið”
- Manually corrected vaka masc. pp from “vaktðr” to “vakaðr” (in anticipation of either correction or deletion of the whole weak 3 masc/fem set)
- u-mutated pret. ind. pl. forms of vaka (technically, all remaining unmutated as):
- Manually u-mutated 2pl pret ind of vaka; apparently the above regex still excludes eth?
- Redefined horfa as “turn (towards, in action, gaze, or thought); work towards; belong; stumble; retreat” and added metadata
- Wrote middle voice definition for horfa
- Redefined kaupa as “buy; bargain; come to a formal agreement” and added metadata
- Wrote middle vouce definition for kaupa
- Corrected masc and fem participles of kaupa to “keyptr”, “keypt”
- Removed -i ending from imperatives (and reduced resulting reflexive forms to -sk or -zk where applicable) of brosa, lifa, hafa (only middle voice remained to be done), horfa, kaupa, loða, sama, segja, skolla, spara, þora, þola; restored it for trúa, þegja (N§538.4)
- Redefined lifa as “live, survive; remain; (of fire) burn” and added metadata
- Redefined ljá as “lend; grant, give, allow” and added metadata
- Redefined ná as “get, obtain; be able, manage (to); reach, catch” and added metadata
- Redefined sama as “suit; be suitable, appropriate” and added metadata
- Redefined segja as “say, tell; declare, pronounce; recite; label; signify, translate as” and added metadata
- Redefined skolla as “float, dangle; keep one’s distance” and added metadata
- Manually u-mutated 3pl pret ind+subj (etc!!) of hafa, sama, spara, þakka, þagna because apparently the above regex still does not see unicode
- redefined spara as “save up; spare” and added metadata
9 May 2016
- Manually u-mutated five preterite forms of sama, apparently passed over by previous regex
- Corrected masc. pp. of skolla from generated “skolldðr” to “skollaðr”
10 May 2016
- Modified a few cognate lines for strong verbs (added previously unlisted German cognates; more of that outstanding).
- Manually u-mutated two preterite plural indicative reflexive forms of spara
- Corrected una pp from “untðr” to “unaðr”
- Manually u-mutated three preterite plural indicative forms of hafa
17 May 2016
- Redefined gá as “heed, care” and added metadata
- Redefined hafa as “have, possess, hold; observe, celebrate; contain; take, fetch; use” and added metadata
- Redefined una as “enjoy; remain, dwell” and added metadata
- Redefined vaka as “be/stay awake; wake up” and added metadata
- Redefined þola as “endure; permit; be at rest” and added metadata
Late May 2016
- Finalized first etymological pass of class 1 weak verbs
2 June 2016
- Substituted væna for less common vænta
7 June 2016
9 July 2016
- Redefined míga as “pee” and added metadata
10 July 2016
- Redefined vitra as “reveal” and added metadata
- Redefined eggja as “incite” and added metadata
- Redefined hata as “hate; persecute; drive away; damage; destroy”’ and added metadata
- Redefined tjá as “show” and added metadata
- Completed first etymological pass of class 2 weak verbs
- Cut from class 2 weak because only common weak verbs should be included:
- Added to class 2 weak:
11 July 2016
- Redefined brotna as “break” (with transitive marker “intransitive” and added metadata
- Redefined freista as “put to the test; tempt” and added metadata
- Redefined herja as “raid, plunder; go raiding” and added metadata
12 July 2016
- Redefined hugsa as “reflect (on); consider; have in mind; pay attention to/g” and added metadata
- Redefined hvika as “flinch, recoil; falter” and added metadata
13 July 2016
- Redefined jafna as “even out; equalize; divide up evenly; compare” and added metadata
- Defined jafnask as “compare oneself with, consider oneself a match for”
- Redefined játa as “assent; consent; grant, yield, allow; promise; acknowledge, confess” and added metadata
- Defined játask as “promise, commit oneself”
- Redefined kalla as “call, name; call out; summon; say, maintain; claim (for oneself)” and added metadata
- Redefined kanna as “explore, search; acquaint oneself with; demand; dedicate, allocate; sight” and added metadata
- Defined kannask as “get to know; recognize, admit; acknowledge”
- Redefined kasta as “cast; overthrow, capsize; reject; play dice” and added metadata
- Redefined lofa as “praise; allow; promise” and added metadata
14 July 2016
- Redefined marka as “mark; wound; mark off; depict; describe; signify; take note; understand” and added metadata
- Redefined mata as “feed” and added metadata
- Defined matask as “eat”
- Redefined sanna as “affirm; prove, convict” and added metadata
- Defined sannask as “prove true, turn out”
- Redefined skapa as “shape; create; impose; assign as one’s fate; trim (hair)” and added metadata
- Defined skapask as “take shape, turn out (esp. as hoped or expected)”
- Redefined snara as “turn, twist, wring; translate; fling; push, drive” and added metadata
- Defined snarask as “turn; rush”
15 July 2016
- Redefined sofna as “fall asleep; pass away” and added metadata
- Redefined starfa as “work at, occupy oneself with” and added metadata
- Defined starfask as “wear oneself out”
- Redefined stǫðva as “stop, halt; calm down; hinder, hold back” and added metadata
- Redefined svara as “answer; pay; amount to, be equal to” and added metadata
- Redefined tala as “talk; discuss” and added metadata
- Defined talask as “discuss; agree”
- Redefined vara as “warn; expect, have a premonition” and added metadata
- Defined varask as “be on one’s guard; take care to avoid”
- Redefined vára as “become spring” and added metadata
16 July 2016
- Redefined varða as “guard, defend; warrant, be answerable; be liable, punishable; hinder, delay; withhold from; belong to; bargain for” and added metadata
- Redefined vitja as “visit; find, look for; fetch, claim” and added metadata
- (Re?)inserted -j- in stem forms followed by a/u for vitja (cf. 17 Feb 2013)
- Redefined vitra as “reveal; announce” and added metadata
- Defined vitrask as “appear, esp. in a dream or vision”
- Redefined ætla as “think; suppose, expect; intend; decide; assign, allot” and added metadata
- Redefined fagna as “rejoice; welcome, receive” and added metadata
- Completed first pass of metadata for class 2 weak verbs
18 July 2016
- Redefined beita as “feed, graze; hunt, chase; scheme against; wield (a weapon against sbd); harness; yoke; sail close to the wind” and added metadata
- Redefined berja as “strike, beat; transgress” and added metadata
- Defined berjask as “fight; attack”
- Redefined brenna as “burn (down); heat; sear; purify in, process with, produce by fire” and added metadata
- Redefined byggja as “live, inhabit; cohabit; settle; build; buy; marry; lend at interest” and added metadata
- Redefined bœta as “improve; restore, repair; compensate, atone; heal” and added metadata
19 July 2016
- Redefined dvelja as “delay, hinder; stay, wait; put off” and added metadata
- Redefined dveljask as “stay; tarry; be prevented” and added metadata
- Redefined dynja as “thunder, resound; cracke; whoosh; gush, pour” and added metadata
- Redefined dœma as “judge, convict; opine; converse” and added metadata
- Redefined elda as “light, kindle; heat, cook; light up; result; grow old” and added metadata
- Redefined enda as “end; delimit; keep, fulfil; deprive” and added metadata
20 July 2016
- Redefined etja as “incite; contend; use as fodder; stick out” and added metadata
- Redefined eyða as “empty, clear; squander; destroy; abandon; dissolve; annul” and added metadata
- Defined eyðask as “lay waste; run out”
21 July 2016
- Redefined fella as “fell; kill; lower; withhold; convict; put an end to; lose (livestock) to cold or hunger; fit, connect; arrange” and added metadata
- Redefined festa as “fasten; hang; memorize; promise, commit to; engage to be married” and added metadata
- Defined festask as “stick to; gain a foothold; grow strong, intense”
22 July 2016
- Redefined flytja as “move; transport over water; carry out, perform; tell, recite; support in terms of basic needs” and added metadata
- Defined flytjask as “move, travel; make a living”
23 July 2016
- Corrected preterite indicative stem of flýja from flýð- to flúð- and corrected participles
- Corrected preterite indicative stem of frýja from frýð- to frúð-
- Redefined frýja as “reproach, taunt; incite; object” and added metadata
- Redefined fylgja as “accompany; follow; pursue; lead; belong to” and added metadata
- Redefined fýsa as “urge, incite; wish, long for” and added metadata
- Redefined fœra as “move; bring, convey; alter; translate” and added metadata
- Defined fœrask as “go; do; exert oneself”
- Made it possible for strong and weak verbs to share the same infinitive in the book code
24 July 2016
- Merged strong and weak verbs into a single headword retrieval system on the website
- Corrected a number of cross-references (these still need testing)
- Made weak verbs public
25 July 2016
- Redefined gegna as “be entitled to; be duty-bound to; suit; signify, matter; amount to” and added metadata
- Redefined gera as “make; do, undertake; amount to; pay, cause sbd sth; impose, condemn sbd to sth; grant; avail; send” and added metadata
- Defined gerask as “become; happen; go; get ready; behave”
- Redefined glepja as “derange; deceive; seduce” and added metadata
- Redefined greiða as “pay; avail, succeed; carry out; prepare; disentangle, comb” and added metadata
- Redefined heyra as “hear, listen; belong; concern; behoove” and added metadata
- Defined heyrask as “seem to hear”
27 July 2016
- Redefined hleypa as “send running; chase off; send forth; cast off; ride in a gallop” and added metadata
- Redefined hlífa as “protect, shelter; spare” and added metadata
- Defined hlífask as “spare; refrain”
- Redefined hlýða as “listen; obey; be due, proper” and added metadata
- Defined hlýðask as “listen; be due, proper”
31 July 2016
- Redefined hyggja as “think; believe; intend; reckon with; think well or ill of” and added metadata
- Redefined hœfa as “hit; aim, direct; fit, suit; be appropriate” and added metadata
- Defined hœfask as “match”
1 August 2016
- Redefined kenna as “know, recognize; feel, experience; taste; attribute, acknowledge; call, name; suspect, accuse; teach; tell, announce” and added metadata
- Defined kennask as “seem; feel; taste; confess”
- Redefined keppa as “show strength; contend” and added metadata
- Redefined kippa as “snatch, pull” and added metadata
- Defined kippask as “tug, struggle; convulse”
3 August 2016
- Added 1 weak item þykkja
- Added 1 weak item sœkja
- Added 1 weak item yrkja
26 August 2016
- Redefined klæða as “dress; cover” and added metadata
- Redefined kneikja as “bend; push, force” and added metadata
- Redefined kveðja as “greet; address; summon; entreat; demand, ask for” and added metadata
- Redefined leggja as “lay; lower; put down; give up; saddle; feed; cover, form a layer; establish, determine; appraise; set out; lay out, pay; stab, thrust” and added metadata
- Redefined leggjask as “lie down; set off; swim” and added metadata
- Redefined leiða as “lead; drag; live, spend; focus on; follow; lure, persuade; bury; pronounce; cause to hate” and added metadata
- Defined leiðask as “loathe, tire of”
- Redefined leita as “seek; vie; investigate, seek to find out; behave towards sbd; (attempt to) travel” and added metadata
- Defined leitask as “explore; examine”
- Redefined lenda as “land; conclude; avail; grant sbd land” and added metadata
- Defined lengjask as “grow long, take a long time” and added metadata
- Redefined leyfa as “permit; praise” and added metadata
- Redefined lypta as “lift, raise; undertake, cause; move; go” and added metadata
- Defined lyptask as “go”
- Redefined lægja as “lower; humble; humiliate; sink; grow calm” and added metadata
- Redefined lýsa as “illuminate; shine; show; make known; become clear; give sbd sight” and added metadata
- Redefined merkja as “mark, inscribe; draw; delimit; note, observe; infer; signify; show, demonstrate” and added metadata
- Redefined mæla as “speak; say; declare; measure” and added metadata
- Defined mælask as “speak”
- Redefined nefna as “name, call; mention; appoint; order, summon; levy” and added metadata
- Defined nefnask as “call oneself, give as one’s name”
27 August 2016
- Redefined níða as “shame, defame; provoke” and added metadata
- Defined níðask as “behave shamefully”
- Redefined reiða as “carry, transport; swing; raise to strike; toss; push, drive; bring out of balance; weigh; pay; prepare, construct; spread, make known; turn out, develop; anger” and added metadata
- Defined reiðask as “become angry”
- Redefined reisa as “raise; build; begin; chase” and added metadata
- Defined reisask as “rise up”
- Deleted 1 weak rekkja from book headword list because it’s not interesting enough a word to include
- Redefined renna 1 as “drive, chase; trigger, set into motion; pour; melt; slip, (cause to) glide; rinse; avert; turn” and added metadata
- Defined rennask 1 as “move, pass”
- Redefined rétta as “straighten; right, raise; stretch; hand over; put right; adjudicate; sentence; let drift” and added metadata
- Redefined reyna as “put to the test; examine; make trial; experience, prove; challenge” and added metadata
- Defined reynask as “prove to be”
- Deleted ræsta from book headword list (insuficiently common)
- Redefined rœða as “speak, converse; discuss; pronounce” and added metadata
- Redefined selja as “give, grant; hand over; transfer ownership of; sell” and added metadata
- Defined seljask as “give oneself up; hire oneself out; exchange”
- Redefined senda as “send; throw” and added metadata
- Redefined setja as “set, place; set up, equip; assuage; found, establish; decree, prescribe; appoint; grant; load (with cargo); inlay; thrust; escape” and added metadata
- Defined setjask as “sit down; settle down; set, go down”
- Redefined sigla as “sail; set sail; move, glide” and added metadata
- Redefined signa as “consecrate (by way of a sign); make the sign of the cross; bless; sink” and added metadata
- Defined signask as “cross oneself”
28 August 2016
- Redefined skella as “slam, strike; cackle; scold” and added metadata
- Redefined skemmta as “amuse; kill time” and added metadata
- Redefined skilja as “part; set apart; end; perceive; understand; depict; adjudicate, decide; opine; grant” and added metadata
- Defined skiljask as “part ways; understand”
- Redefined skipta as “part, divide; take part; change, exchange; affect, matter to; amount to; adjudicate, decide; happen” and added metadata
- Defined skiptask as “part ways; change; exchange”
- Redefined spenna as “clasp; fasten (around); seize, capture; obtain; hold prisoner; draw (a bough); spend, use up” and added metadata
- Redefined spretta 1 as “cause to spring; unfasten; tear” and added metadata
- Redefined spyrja 1 as “ask; learn, find out; track” and added metadata
- Defined spyrjask as “be told, reported”
29 August 2016
- Redefined stefna as “steer, aim; head; summon” and added metadata
- Redefined stilla as “temper; calm; sneak up; ensnare; arrange; tune” and added metadata
- Redefined stýra as “steer; govern; possess” and added metadata
- Redefined sveigja as “bend; play (a stringed instrument); give in” and added metadata
- Defined sýnask as “reveal oneself/itself; seem; seem best” and added metadata
- Redefined sæta as “lie in wait for, ambush; undergo; bring about; have to do with, spring from; amount to; stack (hay)”
- Deleted telgja from book headword list (too obscure)
- Redefined telgja as “hew, cut” and added metadata
- Redefined telja as “count; deem; tell; speak; sail” and added metadata
- Redefined veðja as “wager, bet; appeal” and added metadata
- Redefined vefja as “wrap; braid; embroil; tarry, hesitate” and added metadata
- Defined vefjask as “stray, scatter; tarry”
- Redefined veita as “grant, give; help; host, feast; celebrate; sustain, support; happen; lead, divert (water)” and added metadata
- Redefined vekja as “wake; stir, rouse; broach, bring up; cause to flow” and added metadata
- Defined vekjask as “wake up, rouse oneself”
- Redefined véla as “deal with; trick, deceive” and added metadata
- Defined veljask as “volunteer” and added metadata
- Redefined verja as “defend, guard; ward off; withhold; cover; embrace; clothe; use; swing; exert oneself; invest” and added metadata
- Defined verjask as “defend oneself”
- Redefined væna as “hope for; expect; offer as a prospect; suspect, accuse” and added metadata
- Defined vænask as “hope for; boast of”
- Redefined þekja as “cover; thatch; surcharge” and added metadata
- Added metadata to the remaining 1 weak items
6 September 2016
12 September 2016
- Tweaked vilja (vilsk > vilzk)
- Drafted firra
- Drafted kyrra
- Drafted þverra
- Drafted hvessa
- Drafted missa
14 September 2016
- Restored dental suffix to ÍF standard: glepja, hleypa, keppa, kippa, kneikja, merkja, rekkja, dreyma, dvelja, dynja, dœma, glíma, lengja, skilja, telja, vekja, velja
- Fixed dental suffix for hvessa, væna, þekja, þylja, œpa, vaka
- Reassigned leita, veðja from 1 weak to 2 weak and corrected the paradigms accordingly
- Tweaked sense of gera (“pay, deal”)
- Tweaked veðja (2sg pres ind middle zk > sk)
- Implemented Jón Þorkelsson’s geminate reduction policy in the strong verbs (only before unless otherwise specified):
- þverra (before all other consonants, including sk/zk)
- svimma (only before at this point, but revisit)
16 September 2016
- Implemented Jón Þorkelsson’s geminate reduction policy in the weak verbs as laid out in Þorkelsson 1901 and in the
Grammar, i.e. kk, rr ahead of , nn ahead of , pp ahead of any other consonant, ss ahead of , tt ahead of...?
- Changed lexical item skemmta to skemta
18 September 2016
- Implemented a first geminate reduction of hyggja (viz. in all pret and past ptc forms).
- Tweaked geminate reduction in strong verbs (ppsk > psk)
- Restored all geminated forms to Íslenzk fornrit practice to avoid the slippery slope of further de-modernization (think i for j etc.). Discuss in
19 September 2016
- Added metadata for spotta, stikla, blanda 2, falsa, geiga, hugna, lasta, ríta 2, róma, sveipa 2, syfja and modified headword lists to accommodate them
- Redefined falsa as “falsify; defraud; cheat out of; mar, breach, render useless”
- Defined falsask as “be marred, breached, rendered useless”
- Redefined geiga as “stray” (NB not included in book headword list — too rare)
- Redefined lasta as “slander; blaspheme”
- Removed mislíka from all headword lists but not raw data
- Changed lexical form of rita 2 to ríta.
- Redefined róma as “cheer, approve; cry out”
- Redefined sveipa 2 as “wrap, swaddle; dress (a wound); swing (a weapon)”
- Redefined sveipa VII as “wrap, swaddle”
- Did a first pass of alphabetizing
20 September 2016
- Did a second pass of alphabetizing
- Did a second pass of alphabetizing
- Coordinated headwords between the different headword files (left out a handful of rarer weak verbs)
grep -F -x -v -f bookheadwords.txt vwk2.txt etc
- Redefined falsa as “falsify; betray; cheat out of; pierce”
- Sketched out a highly speculative preterite for røkkva
23 September 2016
- Corrected active voice of sjá
- Input a speculative draft of spýja II
- Input a speculative draft of flýja II
- Input hrjósa II
- Redefined hnjóða
24 September 2016
- Backdated the preterite subjunctive vowel in II/VII from y to œ:
- Begun merging transline and caseline
25 September 2016
- Completed merging transline and caseline; made some modifications to senses (strong) in the progress
5 October 2016
- Begun updating cognates of strong verbs
18 October 2016
- Finished updating cognates of class I, begun on class II
17 October 2016
- Genderbent the paradigm pronouns to hon, þau and changed ptc order to f, m, n
20 October 2016
- Finished updating cognates of class II, begun on III
21 October 2016
- Finished updating cognates of class III
22 October 2016
- Updated cognates of class IV
- Updated cognates of class V
- Updated cognates of class VI
23 October 2016
- Updated cognates of class VII
- Updated cognates of pret-pres
24 October 2016
- Corrected pret subj stem vowel of hafa (a > e)
27 October 2016
- Updated cognates of class 3 weak
- Changed sense of tjá to “show; report”
- Changed sense of trúa to “believe; trust”
- Run through weak 2 commentlines for ME and general irregularities
28 October 2016
- Changed Perseus links to Logeion links
- Corrected OED links from local to universal URLs
- Rearranged Dutch cognates to precede German cognates
29 October 2016
- Removed duplicate entry of hrjósa
- Fixed some formatting and other errors in cognate lines
30 October 2016
- Redefined beiða as “request, demand; desire; summon”
- Redefined stefna as “steer, aim; be headed; summon; schedule”
31 October 2016
- Finished casual proofreading of all cognate listings
- Checked that there’s no MnE cognates without intermediate ME cognates
- Checked formatting in commentlines: I/2 means mixed, 1, 2 means both attested, pret-pres after 1
1 November 2016
- Genderbent participles in commentlines
- Checked that every “transitive” has case information
2 November 2016
- Checked all pret-pres after strong connections
- Checked vowel length and other diacritics for ME, Latin lexemes
3 November 2016
- Checked that divergent senses in commentline are noted
- Genderbent adjectives in commentlines
7 November 2016
- Tweaked definitions of kalla to “call, name; call out; summon; say, maintain; lay claim to”
10 November 2016
- First tweaks to gá: 3pl ind, 1sg subj gá
- First tweaks to já: 3pl ind, 1sg subj já
- First tweak to ljá: 3pl refl ljásk
- First tweaks to ná: 3pl ind, 1sg subj ná, 3pl refl násk
- First tweaks to tjá: 3pl ind, 1sg subj tjá, 3pl refl tjásk
14 November 2016
- Tweaked definition of bera to “carry, bear, bring; appear; behave; amount to”
16 November 2016
- Redefined drekka as “drink; toast, celebrate/commemorate, feast; suckle; swallow”
17 November 2016
- Redefined ráða as “advise; deliberate; discuss; interpret; govern; resolve, decide; undertake; plot; travel; transport; deprive; punish; have intercourse with”
- Redefined hníta as “strike, pierce”
- Redefined svíkja as “betray; cheat out of”
- Redefined flýja as “flee; shun; evacuate”
19 November 2016
- Redefined kljúfa as “cleave, split”
- Redefined spjóta as “spawn; give birth”
- Redefined fljúga as “fly; move rapidly; flee”
- Redefined frjósa as “freeze; freeze over”
- Redefined súga as “suck; suckle”
- Redefined svima and svimma as “swim; stray; wallow”
- Redefined spretta as “jump; spring; slip; sprout, grow; burst”
- Redefined binda as “bind, tie; spell-bind; fix, make binding”
- Defined bindask as “commit; keep onself in check”
- Redefined vinda as “wring; wind; braid; twist; turn; hurl, thrust”
- Redefined stela as “steal, rob”
- Redefined biðja as “ask, entreat; pray; order, instruct; express a wish; offer”
- Redefined liggja as “lie, recline; lie ill; sojourn; be located; go unused; be frozen over; have intercourse with”
- Redefined mala as “grind, mill”
- Defined sverjask as “be sworn in”
- Redefined kefja as “submerge; defeat”
- Defined kefjask as “duck, dive; be extinguished”
- Redefined deyja as “die; go numb”
- Redefined gróa as “grow; recover, heal; increase”
- Finished going over all strong verbs with no semicolon in list of senses
- Redefined dreyma as “dream; appear in a dream”
- Redefined eggja as “urge, incite; sharpen”
- Redefined elska as “love; worship, venerate; esteem”
- Redefined heilsa as “greet, wish well”
- Redefined líka as “please; give an appearance; polish”
- Redefined skora as “carve; tally; chafe; demand, insist; summon, challenge; determine, set conditions; put forward”
- Redefined skrá as “register; assign; prescribe”
- Redefined synja as “deny; declare one’s innocence; refuse”
- Redefined þakka as “thank; reward”
- Redefined duga as “avail; help; suffice, endure; do, be acceptable; succeed, go well/badly; try one’s best”
- Redefined blanda VII as “mix; dilute; brew (mead)”
- Redefined blanda 2 as “mix, mingle”
- Redefined ríta I and 2 as “write; carve”
- Finished going over all weak verbs with no semicolon in list of senses
20 November 2016
- Verified that all strong items have a transline
- Verified that all transitive strong items have case
- Verified attestation of strong middle voice, modified senses along the way
- Undid genderbending for adjectives and past participles in commentlines
22 November 2016
- Started verifying translines and middle voice attestation + definition for weak verbs
23 November 2016
- Changed all DOE references to the new deeplinking format, and updated H-words from BT to DOE.
26 November 2016
- Finished verifying that all weak items have a transline
- Finished verifying that all transitive weak items have case
- Finished verifying attestation of weak middle voice, modified senses along the way
27 November 2016
- Tweaked sense of vakna
- Explained stem length for gera
- Explained stem length for hyggja. leggja, byggja, rekkja.
- Modified sense list for rekkja.
- Added item dvala 2
1 December 2016
- Simplified triple geminates in the weak set (sœkja, þykkja)
2 December 2016
- Finished proofreading for impersonal uses in the strong verbs (added a range of sense along the way)
6 December 2016
- Finished proofreading for impersonal uses in the weak verbs (sporadically tweaked senses along the way)
7 December 2016
- Changed long-stemmed item rekkja to short-stemmed rekja, defined as “stretch; unfold; track, trace; examine; disentangle, explain”
- Cut mata from book set (rarely found in active form)
11 December 2016
- Tidied up relationship between svimma and svima plus other forms.
- Tweaked senses of bera
- Tweaked stem length accounts for items of 27 Nov 2016
12 December 2016
- Fixed online h1 display of pretpres verbs, which hadn’t been identifying as pretpres lately
- Corrected “cracke” to “crack” in definition of dynja, and regrouped senses
- Added item belga III (attested as participle only)
- Added item bjúga II (attested as participle only)
- Added item gnaga VI (attested as pres sg and participle only)
- Made minor alphabetization tweak to
13 December 2016
- Added item gnella III (attested as pret pl only)
- Added item hvelfa III (attested as ptc only)
- Added item kreppa III (attested as ptc only)
- Added item sletta III (attested as pret sg only)
- Added item snjóða II (attested as ptc only)
14 December 2016
- Added item melta III (strong ptc first attested in MnIce)
- Added item tjúga II (attested as pret sg and ptc)
- Added item stúpa II (attested as inf, but strong in Norwegian)
- Added item svípa I (attested as pret sg and pl)
- Removed mixed-class lexeme skepja in favour of skapa VI; yet to readd skepja as class 1 weak (but now see 3 January 2017)
- Added item safna 2
15 December 2016
- Tweaked sense of kreppa to “contract, grow knotty”
- Prettified html
21 December 2016
- Standardized phrasing in commentline around “only attested as” and “more commonly found as”
3 January 2017
- Restored skepja VI and fixed xrefs with skapa 2
- Corrected ljúm to ljám
- Changed preterite vowel of halda from é to e following IF
- Changed preterite vowel of blanda from é to e though no IF occurrences found
- Changed preterite vowel of falda from é to e though no IF occurrences found
- Changed preterite vowel of falla from é to e following IF
4 January 2017
- Changed preterite vowel of hanga from é to e following IF
- Made strong and short-stemmed 1 weak 2/3sg forms conform to IF:
- Changed 23sg of brenna to IF standard brennr
- Changed participle of svelga from solginn to sólginn (IF standard?)
- Changed 23sg of gína to presumed IF standard gínr
- Changed 23sg of hrína to presumed IF standard hrínr
- Changed 23sg of skjalla to presumed IF standard skellr
- Changed 23sg of renna to IF standard rennr
- Changed 23sg of spinna to IF standard spinnr
- Changed 23sg of mala to presumed IF standard melr
- Changed 23sg of vella to presumed IF standard vellr
- Changed 23sg of vinna to presumed IF standard vinnr
- Noted progressive assimilation in relevant taglines
11 January 2017
- Fixed a number of weak commentlines that referred to variants in ð where I had already restored the paradigm forms to ð
- Fixed a HTML tag in gá
13 January 2017
- Begun adding taglines: strong verbs with stems in -t
14 January 2017
- Completed a first, very rough filling out of strong taglines
- Corrected outstanding ðt-cluster to tt (auða: jótt)
15 January 2017
- Added some weak taglines to do with the dental suffix
16 January 2017
17 January 2017
- Added some further weak taglines in class 1
31 January 2017
- Started working through weak past participles; systematic run-through needed still
13 February 2017
- Removed dýja 1, signa 1 (but more commonly 2!) from book headword list
- Worked systematically through weak past ptcs of class 1
- Corrected form ortti to orti
14 February 2017
- Completed check of past participles of weak classes 1, 3
15 February 2017
- Moved signa from class 1 to class 2
16 February 2017
- Revised sjá, esp. middle voice, to a moderately confident standard for the first time
- Simplified all áa sequences to á (c. 115 weak hits, no strong hits given 11 Nov 2012)
- Implemented ð-ending for supine forms following vowel stems where applicable, i.e. þreyja, skrá, spá, gá, já, tjá.
1 March 2017
- Provisionally i-mutated preterite subjunctive forms of já, tjá
- Fixed an error throughout the weak form designations:
:g/\(^.*zk.*\)1\(+pl+imper+middle.*$\)/s//\12\2/g (200 hits)
- Corrected imperative forms for ná and one or two other -á items. Now moderately confident about gá, já, ljá, ná, tjá.
- Checked (mostly by sight) stem vowels of participial forms in strong classes II–IV
- Corrected bíða 2sg pret ind from beizt to beitt (see N§534.2c)
- Corrected stem vowel in participle forms of drekka
- Corrected stem consonant in participle forms of troða
- Regularized reflexive binda
2 March 2017
- Extended preterite plural vowel change of hlaupa to the active voice (cf. 24 September 2016)
- Restored pret subjunctive forms of auða, auka, ausa to -œ- (N§63.11)
- Corrected reflexive forms of auða from -ðs-, -ðz- to z
- Restored z to sz for gauszk, hrauszk, kauszk, frauszk, laszk, jószk, blészk
- Tweaked senses of støkkva
- Changed preterite subjunctive stems of búa, hǫggva from hjøgga etc. to høgga etc (see Hreinn Benediktsson 1987: 315)
3 March 2017
- Tried to disentangle svípa, sveipa VII, sveipa 2, svipa 2. These need a final check still.
- Tweaked senses of batna
6 March 2017
- Tweaked commentlines of sveipa VII, svípa I
- Started doing a CV check of class 1 variant forms
13 March 2017
- Moved an xref to beiða from binda to biðja
- Added links to etymological notes on belga
- Tweaked senses of reyna
- Completed CV check of variant forms for class 1 weak
21 March 2017
- Removed erroneous headword glepa from headword lists
- Fixed kala classification in main headwords list
- Removed erroneous headword rœda from headword lists and corrected three metadata lines to rœða
- Redefined lesa from “gather; read; gossip” to “read; gather; cast; slander; weave, embroider”
27 March 2017
- Restored gemination in þverra
- Fixed gemination in past participle forms of gyggva
- Fixed gemination in reflexive forms of drekka
- Fixed gemination in reflexive forms of hrøkkva
- Fixed gemination in reflexive forms of kløkkva
- Fixed gemination in reflexive forms of røkkva
- Fixed gemination in reflexive forms of springa
- Fixed gemination in reflexive forms of stinga
- Fixed gemination in reflexive forms of støkkva
- Fixed gemination in reflexive forms of søkkva
- Fixed gemination in reflexive forms of hanga
- Fixed gemination in reflexive forms of fá
- Fixed a gemination error in a reflexive form of þykkja
- Normalized imperative rétzk to rézk
- Normalized imperative hitzk to hizk
- Normalized imperative spretzk to sprezk
- Normalized imperative sætzk to sæzk
28 March 2017
- Regeminated further forms in accordance with presumed ÍF policy:
- strong: gaussk, hraussk, kaussk, hnaussk, fraussk, aussk, blássk, físsk, ríssk, frjóssk, frýssk, gýssk, hrýssk, kýssk, hnýssk, gjóssk, hrjóssk, kjóssk, hnjóssk, jóssk, lessk, reiszk, feiszk, ríszk, reiszt, reiszk, lýszk, ljószk, lauszk, breszk, braszt, braszk, gneszk, gnaszt, gnaszk,
- weak 1: fýssk, fýszk (!), lýssk, reissk, reisszk, þeyssk, þeysszk
11 April 2017
- Integrated corpus search into website (per class or individual forms)
12 April 2017
22 April 2017
- Changed hjalpa to hjálpa to reflect ÍF orthography (N§124.3)
- Changed skjalfa to skjálfa to reflect ÍF orthography (N§124.3)
- Changed past participles of belga to reflect ÍF orthography (N§124.3)
- Changed past participles of hvelfa to reflect ÍF orthography (N§124.3)
27 August 2017
- Changed lexical form of ríta 2 to rita
- Added item harma 2
16 September 2017
- Completed a first rough draft of Proto-Germanic ancestors
- Made some minor changes to sense and cognates here and there
17 September 2017
- Casually proofread PG forms of strong and pret-pres verbs; pick up at weak verbs
- Casually proofread PG forms of weak verbs; pick up at items marked for extra checking
5 October 2017
- Rephrased information on cognates in all verbs (shortened; de-semicolonized)
7 October 2017
- Minor improvements to etymological information
- Corrected preterite stem of frýja
- Checked variant information on weak 1
8 October 2017
- Checked variant information on weak 2–3 and pret-pres; pick up at strong
10 October 2017
- Standardized references to pret-pres verbs in form “inf pret-pres (III)”
11 October 2017
- Systematized cross-references (“also found as”) and a few other formulas
- Added preterite and participial forms to cross-references (“also found as...”)
17 October 2017
- Added a line
att comprising a numeral: 1 means only one part of the paradigm (e.g. just the past participle) is attested. Preterites count for two points though. Anything below 2 ought to be clearly flagged in the book!
- Americanized punctuation
- Removed boldface from commentlines
20 October 2017
- Proofread inflected variants against standard forms
- Proofread coinciding forms between paradigms
21 October 2017
- finished adding att lines
- rephrased variant phrasing of members of Table 2.2 (except keppa, kippa) to “Dominant preterite in the MSS”
- added weak 1 tyggja and cross-referenced forms
- added weak 1 kreppa and cross-referenced forms
- added weak 1 sletta and cross-referenced forms
- added weak 1 hvelfa and cross-referenced forms
- added weak 2 trega and cross-referenced forms
- added weak 2 gnaga and cross-referenced forms
22 October 2017
- added weak 1 skepja and cross-referenced forms
- added weak 1 kefja and cross-referenced forms
- added weak 1 sperna and cross-referenced forms
- added weak 3 vara and cross-referenced forms
23 October 2017
24 October 2017
- added weak 1 gleðja
- added weak 1 fylkja
26 October 2017
- added weak 2 vísa
- added weak 1 spilla
27 October 2017
- added weak 1 geyma
- added weak 1 krefja
- added weak 2 gruna
- added weak 2 smíða
- added weak 1 deila
- corrected 2sg pres ind middle forms of spýja, flýja from “spýizk”, “flýizk” to “spýzk”, “flýzk”
29 October 2017
- added weak 2 orka
- added weak 2 afla
- added weak 1 frétta
30 October 2017
31 October 2017
- Changed væna to vænta.
- added weak 1 hirða.
- added weak 1 hvíla.
- added weak 1 hætta.
- added weak 1 heimta.
- added weak 2 hreinsa.
- added weak 2 hlakka.
- added weak 1 hrœra.
- added weak 2 ótta.
1 November 2017
- added weak 2 opna.
- added weak 2 helga.
- added weak 2 stofna.
- added weak 1 hylja.
2 November 2017
- added weak 2 prófa.
- added weak 2 glóa.
- added weak 2 refsa.
- added weak 1 mœða.
- added weak 1 grœða.
- added weak 1 meiða.
- added weak 2 sauma.
3 November 2017
- added weak 2 tjalda.
- added weak 2 dreifa.
- added weak 1 hryggja.
4 November 2017
- added weak 1 treysta.
- added weak 2 laða.
- started on sløkkva 1. XXX PICK UP HERE What to do with slacian–slake? De Vries ON says it is connected, De Vries Dutch says it isn’t.
8 November 2017
- added conjectural sløkkva IV (see Noreen and contrast Fritzner).
- added weak 2 ógna.
- added weak 1 œgja.
12 November 2017
- Tweaked phrasing of usage line (case references).
- added weak 1 hvetja.
- added weak 2 losa.
- added weak 2 losna.
13 November 2017
- added weak 2 auðga.
- added weak 2 nauðga.
- added weak 1 neyða.
- added weak 2 kristna.
- added weak 2 rofna.
- added weak 1 gœða.
14 November 2017
- added weak 1 hrista.
- added weak 2 rasa.
20 November 2017
- readded signa 2 to book headwords
- readded mata 2 to book headwords
- readded telgja 1 to book headwords
26 November 2017
- Asteriskified PG forms
- Added effects of Sievers’ Law into PG forms (-j- > -ij- after heavy vowels)
- Provisionally changed neuter past ptc of gá to gát and made a note in commentline
- Provisionally changed neuter past ptc of já to ját and made a note in commentline
- Provisionally changed neuter past ptc of tjá to téðr and made a note in commentline
19 April 2018
- added sóa VII
- added dúfa VII
- added beygja 1
- corrected 1sg pres ind of spinna (initial s had gone missing)
20 April 2018
- corrected dental suffix of deila to -d-
- added girna 1
22 May 2018
- corrected participle of ná to náðr
23 May 2018
- corrected a number of weak feminine participles to reflect labial mutation
2 July 2018
- corrected preterite of flýja 1 to reflect front mutation
11 July 2018
- fixed metadata reference for leita 2
16 July 2018
- Modified sense list for fá (needs work)
- Modified sense list for geta (needs work)
17 July 2018
- Corrected sløkkva 1 and stǫðva for loss of w, and the former for present-tense forms (sløkkvir etc.)
Forms and Grammar
- fem. ptc. everywhere -uð where the intervening vowel is a?
- check forms of sóa (e.g. subjunctive forms)
- See what ÍF do about pp for tjá: tét, tjáð, or tját?
- Also see whether ÍF use gát, ját, tját or gáð, jáð, tjáð.
- correct forms for spá, skrá
- glóa forms suspicious — check
- check ÍF dental suffix of geyma, strengja, fylkja, semja and other late 2017 additions
- Solve inconsistency in dental suffix after n: spernti or sperndi, given nennti (from nanþijaną, N§238.2b), spennti (correct?) but renndi, kenndi (N§238.1b?)? Also fix in strong xrefs if making any changes. N§238
- check forms of skepja 1 in ÍF
- Do a final check for gemination systemacy along the lines of 27–28 March 2017; see
- Since you have restored sszk etc., check about tzk (sæzk etc); again, N§5432d advises not to, but check ÍF
- Proofread items added in August 2016 ff., and particularly Oct 2017 ff.
- Explain why valda has pret. olli
- I’ve started adding a few pointers “weak” before MnE forms that changed over during ME (yell, spurn, melt). Make sure to do this systematically or not at all.
- Figure out the PG form of statives (ēną, ōijaną)
- where the commentline contains “derives from,” put all the cognates in the parentheses with the PG.
- complete treysta 1
- complete sløkkva 1
- check PG roots of ótta. Current information from De Vries but impossible to verify. Pursue further anht-, MnE aught leads.
- Check whether Frisian has regressive assimilation of nk sequences and determine the PG source of hlakka accordingly (Kroonen thinks hlak(k)ōn- but the Latin suggests hlank-; it’s down to the Frisian)
- Check variant forms (and overlaps in form) of additions from October 2017 ff.
- Perhaps orka and yrkja could do with an explanation of how the PG forms fit together
- consider alternative translations of gleðja and gleðjask to disambiguate trans and reflex
- decide: when xreferencing between primary verbs and their causatives, list forms or not? systematize one way or another (search term
- make sure you have “with causative sense” added to the strong xrefs to weak Oct 2017+ additions where applicable
- add PG (strong) verb class where applicable/where deviant, e.g. tyggja III from kewwan II
- decide whether to use order “related to the noun ON xyz” if that’s the only language listed or invert to “ON noun”. Or remove “ON” in these cases?
- standardize ME forms somehow? Currently I display everything according to MED except "("
- check that the sample preterite form used is 3sg not 1sg. No, in fact maybe do it the other way around so you don’t have to convert all the plural forms!
- Check which items (like vera) lack a reflexive paradigm and whether this is correct
- Harmonize “Lexical variants [include/are]” phrasing
- Harmonize causative refs in strong file, perhaps to “The causative is”
- Extend vowel lengthening tags to one-tense-only situations or remove them altogether
- Find more things to mention here generally
Candidates for inclusion
- ! do a diff to find out what items have been excluded from what files. I found skrá to be missing from two headword lists!
- strong counterpart to vakna 2 and vaka 3 on the basis of vakinn?
- strong counterpart to tjá 3?
Have one last look through lists like Noreen §483 Anm.
- hvekka (PG hwekkan K)
- ljúka N487
- flúga N468
- ?búga add as variant to bjúga?
- ! ræna, rænti
- ? rækja “reject”
- ? rœkja “heed”
- ? streyma
- ? sneiða
- ? púsa
- ? hirta
- ? benda
- ? borga
- ? reykja
- ? kynda
- Make individual verbs googlable? Convert to a static website, sans PHP!
- Add search field
- Tweak form so it remembers the current item
- Add prev/next buttons
- Check that metadata lines are all connected to the correct headword and that there are no duplicates, e.g. by doing a line count per headword after completing all the caselines
- ? Drop já from book, leaving játa? In which case change the commentline for the book, not the website?
- ? Add boldface to common senses beyond the first?