skulu pretpres (IV) “shall”

“must; will, be willing”

auxiliary

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek skal 1pl vér skulum 1sg ek skula 1pl vér skulim
2sg þú skalt 2pl þér skuluð 2sg þú skulir 2pl þér skulið
3sg hon skal 3pl þau skulu 3sg hon skuli 3pl þau skuli
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek skylda 1pl vér skyldum 1sg ek skylda 1pl vér skyldim
2sg þú skyldir 2pl þér skylduð 2sg þú skyldir 2pl þér skyldið
3sg hon skyldi 3pl þau skyldu 3sg hon skyldi 3pl þau skyldi
preterite infinitive skyldu
past participle f. skulð m. skulðr n. skult
imperative 2sg skul 1pl skulum 2pl skulið
middle voice: skulask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek skulumk 1pl vér skulumk 1sg ek skulumk 1pl vér skulimk
2sg þú skalzk 2pl þér skuluzk 2sg þú skulisk 2pl þér skulizk
3sg hon skalsk 3pl þau skulusk 3sg hon skulisk 3pl þau skulisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek skyldumk 1pl vér skyldumk 1sg ek skyldumk 1pl vér skyldimk
2sg þú skyldisk 2pl þér skylduzk 2sg þú skyldisk 2pl þér skyldizk
3sg hon skyldisk 3pl þau skyldusk 3sg hon skyldisk 3pl þau skyldisk
past participle n. skulzk
imperative 2sg skulsk 1pl skulumk 2pl skulizk

PG *skulaną, OE sculan pret-pres (IV), ME shulen, MnE shall, Dutch zullen, German sollen. Lexical variants include skolu and skalu. Variant preterite skulda. Because of orthographical variation between <l> and <ll> in the manuscripts, the 2sg present sometimes coincides with the 2sg preterite of skjalla III. Imperative and past participial forms not attested.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

© Paul Langeslag 2011, 2017